Botany PAper - The cell wall distinguishes plant cells from...

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The cell wall distinguishes plant cells from animal cells. It consists of cellulose microfibrills that serve as a protective barrier for the cell. It defends the cell from bacterial and fungal pathogens and keeps the cell from rupturing when taking in water. The cell wall also determines the size and shape of the cell. The plasma membrane is a single membrane that forms the outer boundary of the protoplast and is located next to the cell wall. It controls the flow of substances into and out of the cell and detects and sends responses to hormonal and environmental signals. Also, cellulose synthesis takes place in the plasma membrane. The nucleus is the control center of the cell that also contains the genetic information, the DNA, that gives the cell unique its characteristics. The prominent structure in the nucleus is the nucleolus. This is where ribosomes are produced and then moved out to the endoplasmic reticulum and is also where protein synthesis takes place. Ribosomes are three-dimensional membrane systems that are very small in size and live both attached to the endoplasmic reticulum and free in the cytsosol. RNA and protein make up their structure. When ribosomes attach to the endoplasmic reticulum they form rough endoplasmic reticulum. This membrane system can be found throughout the entire eukaryotic cell. Another single membrane structure in the cell is the Golgi body. They are a polarized, dynamic system that is responsible for processing and packaging substances for secretion and for use within the cell. The chloroplast is found in higher plant cells and contains chlorophyll, responsible for giving plants their green color, and carotenoid pigments embedded in thylakoid membranes. Many important processes take place here, such as, photosynthesis, amino acid and fatty acid synthesis, and serves as a temporary storage of starch. The mitochondria is the power center for the cell where cellular respiration takes place and provides energy for the cell to move, divide, contract, and produce secretory products. Its structure is surrounded by a double membrane envelope and the inner membrane is folded into cristae. The vacuole is a single membrane-bound sac that may take up most of the cell volume. Its function serves several purposes, such as, digestion and release of cellular waste and also stores primary and secondary metabolites. Primary growth in a typical perennial vascular plant occurs very close to the tips of roots
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Botany PAper - The cell wall distinguishes plant cells from...

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