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Intro to Psych Notes

Intro to Psych Notes - Psychology Chapter 1-Brief History...

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Psychology Chapter 1 -Brief History of Psychology -Wilhelm Wundt founded the first psychology laboratory in 1879 in Leipzig Germany, studied sensation and perception. -Wundt’s student, Edward Titchner, founded a lab at Cornell in 1892 -William James (brother to Henry James) wrote The Principles of Psychology (1890) -By 1900, 40 psych labs in North America -Types of Psychologists -Cognitive psychologists: focus on basic cognitive processes such as memory and language -Social psychologists: focus on how the presence of other people affects behavior -Industrial/Organizational: focus on improving peoples adjustment in the workplace -Developmental psychologists: how people grow and change over time (can focus on children, adolescents, young adults, adults, older adults) -Clinical psychologists: how to improve people’s lives, diagnosing and treating mental disorders -Forensic psychologists: criminal mind/psychology as it relates to legal issues Chapter 2 -Research methods in psychology -case study: intensive analysis of an individual (Little Albert, Little Hans) -Self-report measures: questionnaires, surveys -Correlational method: -positive correlation -negative correlation -correlation coefficient -correlation is NOT causation! -Naturalistic Observation -Experimental Method -The effect of Prozac on depression -Independent Variable (IV) – the factor that the researcher manipulates -Dependent Variable (DV) – the factor that could hypothetically change as a result of manipulating the independent variable -Placebo control and Experimental treatment groups -Control Procedures -Control procedures: methods that attempt to hold constant all variables and conditions other than those related to the hypotheses being tested -Double-blind control -Placebo control -Random assignment (in a between-subjects design)
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-Biological Psychology -Phineas Gage -Shot in the face with a metal rod while blasting rock for a new railroad to be built -He did not die but he was never the same -Brain Imaging Techniques -Positron Emission Tomography (PET) -Detects brain activity; “subjects” given radioactive substance; radioactivity then emitted by the active brain cells -Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -uses magnetic fields and radio waves -not used very often anymore -fMRI -combo of MRI and PET -Lobes of the Brain -Cerebral Cortex (Drawing on next page) -Limbic system -amygdala -controls emotions such as fear and rage -hippocampus -learning and memory -turns short term memory into long term memory -Neuron-nerve cell Chapter 6 -Learning is any relatively permanent change that results from experience -Classical Conditioning -Delay conditioning -conditioned stimulus precedes unconditioned stimulus and remains on for at least the first part of the unconditioned stimulus -Trace conditioning -conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus but then is turned off -Simultaneous conditioning -conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus working together -Backward conditioning -does not work -Extinction -getting rid of the conditioned response -Stimulus Discrimination
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Intro to Psych Notes - Psychology Chapter 1-Brief History...

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