NURS-611-Dr.-Harris-Exam-2-ppt-review.pptx - Nurs 611...

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Nurs 611 Exam #2 Review Weeks 5-8 Dr. Harris
Exam #2 Points: 50 Due: Opens Day 2: 8 a.m. C.T.; closes Day 5: 8 a.m. C.T. Directions Read each question carefully and choose the best answer. Some questions may have more than one answer as indicated by Select all that apply in the question stem. All questions are worth one point. You have 90 minutes to complete and have only one attempt.
Endocrine System
Hormonal Regulations Endocrine glands are organs that produce hormones and secrete them directly into surrounding FLUID
Types of Hormones Peptide hormones- Hormones derived with a protein structure- they are water soluble- They are synthesized as prohormones and stored in secretory granules- when stimulus occurs they are released- example Proinsulin we make about 60 to 70 units of proinsulin daily and only use about ½ of it. Amine Hormones- Hormones derived from the amino acid TYROSINE -T – thyroid hormones t3 and t4 Steroid Hormones- they are FAT soluble Hormones that come from cholesterol ; THESE are not STORED. They are released as they are produced.
Alterations of Anterior Pituitary Pituitary Adenomas – slow growing – Tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. Benign Adenoma Invasive Adenoma Carcinomas Most are benign Prolactinoma – is a pituitary tumor that secrete prolactin, these are the MOST COMMON of the hormonally active pituitary adenomas Can cause amenorrhea, infertility, nonpuerperal milk production, and hirsutism in woman. In men it can cause ED, infertility and osteopenia
Alterations of the Posterior Pituitary Diabetes Insipidus NOT ENOUGH ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH) Means WATER IS GOING RIGHT THROUGH YOU Inability to concentrate urine High Serum osmolarity Low urine osmolarity Syndrome of Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ( SIADH) TOO MUCH ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH) means TOO MUCH WATER BEING RETAINED HYPONATREMIA Hypervolemia Weight GAIN( not edema)
Pancreas Diabetes is a Dysfunction of the Pancreas INSULIN is the hormone of FUEL STORAGE 1. Carbohydrates / GLUCOSE- (rapid response esp for nerve and RBC to function properly) 2. Fats / triglycerides ( drives most of the fuel needs) 3. Proteins/ Amino Acids. ( Stimulates cellular uptake of amino acids for protein synthesis)
DMT1 vs DMT2 Diabetes type 1 Genetic predisposition (90%) Environmental insult Autoantibodies against BETA CELLS C-PEPTIDE test will tell you beta cell function Complication DKA ( Ketones in urine) Diabetes type 2 Number one cause is Obesity Insulin resistance and decreased insulin secretion by beta cells Complication is Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic State ( no ketones in urine)
Insulin Resistence Obesity causes cells to change shapes and hide receptors Initial increase in insulin production causes down regulation of insulin receptors Beta Cells will begin to burn out and lose the battle First sign is post-prandial glucose increase followed by loss of basal control.
Which effect would cause you to adjust insulin dosage at night?

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