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funCtions-of-the-nervous-system.docx - 8.1 funCtions of the...

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8.1funCtions of thenervous systemA.List the functions of the nervous system.The nervous system is involved in some way in nearly every bodyfunction. Some major functions of the nervous system are1.Receiving sensory input.Sensory receptors monitornumerous external and internal stimuli. We are aware ofsensations from some stimuli, such as vision, hearing, taste,smell, touch, pain, body position, and temperature. Otherstimuli, such as blood pH, blood gases, and blood pressure,are processed at a subconscious level.2.Integrating information. The brain and spinal cord are themajor organs for processing sensory input and initiatingresponses. The input may produce an immediate response,be stored as memory, or be ignored.3.Controlling muscles and glands.Skeletal muscles normallycontract only when stimulated by the nervous system. Thus,module 7nervous systemby controlling skeletal muscle, the nervous system controlsthe major movements of the body. The nervous system alsoparticipates in controlling cardiac muscle, smooth muscle,and many glands.4.Maintaining homeostasis. The nervous system plays animportant role in maintaining homeostasis. This functiondepends on the nervous system’s ability to detect, interpret,and respond to changes in internal and external conditions.In response, the nervous system can stimulate or inhibit theactivities of other systems to help maintain a constantinternal environment.5.Establishing and maintaining mental activity.The brainis the center of mental activity, including consciousness,memory, and thinking.193Learning OutcomeAfter reading this section, you should be able to
8.2Divisions ofthenervoussystemNerves tofaceBrainCNSA.List the divisions of the nervous system, anddescribe the characteristics of each.The nervous system can be divided into two major divisions: thecen- tral nervous system and the peripheral nervous system(figure 8.1). Thecentral nervous system (CNS)consists of thebrain and spi- nal cord. Theperipheral nervous system (PNS)consists of all the nervous tissue outside the CNS(nerves andganglia).The PNS functions to link the CNS with the various parts ofthe body. The PNS carries information about the different tissuesof the body to the CNS and carries commands from the CNS thatalter body activities. Thesensory division,orafferent(toward)division,of the PNS conducts action potentials from sensoryreceptors to the CNS (figure 8.2). The neurons thattransmitactionPNSGangliaNerves toupper limbNerves tolower limbSpinal cordpotentials from the periphery to the CNS are calledsensoryneu-rons.Themotor division,orefferent(away)division,of the PNSconducts action potentials from the CNS to effector organs, suchasmuscles and glands. Theneurons that transmit actionpotentials from the CNS toward the periphery are calledmotorneurons.

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Term
Summer
Professor
Tom Anthony

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