IR Definitions

IR Definitions - IR Definitions Global Political System...

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IR Definitions: Global Political System: Properties that describe the characteristic ways in which actors most often behave in the global arena of any historical period. Global System: Predominant patterns of behaviors and beliefs that prevail internationally to define the major worldwide conditions that heavily influence human and national activities. State: Defined by territory, community and a sovereign government. Schematic Reasoning: information interpreted according to scripts, metaphors and stereotypes [we see what we are trained to see] Cognitive Dissonance: discrepancies between existing beliefs and new information [we see what we want to see] Constructivism: mental maps shape attitudes about, and images of, world politics [we see what we expect to see] Mirror Images: Tendency of states and people in competitive interaction to perceive each other similarly – to see others the same hostile way others see them. Levels of Analysis: Different aspects in international affairs that may be stressed in interpreting global phenomena, depending on whether the analyst chooses to focus on “wholes” or “parts”. Individual: analytical approach that emphasizes the psychological and perceptual variables motivating people. State: Analytical approach that emphasizes how the internal attributes of states influence their foreign policy behaviors. Global: Analyses that emphasize the impact of worldwide conditions on foreign policy behavior and human welfare. Politics: Harold Lasswell, “Who gets what, when how and why?” Low Politics: Global issues related to economic, social, demographic and environmental relations between governments and people. High Politics: Issues related to the military, security and political relations of states. Globalization: integration of states through increasing contact, communication, and trade, creating a holistic, single global system in which the process of change increasingly binds a people together. Sustainable Growth: Economic growth that does not deplete the resources needed to maintain growth.
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Realism: Pessimistic theory derived from the assumption that because humans are born to seek self-advantage, international politics is doomed to be an endless struggle for power involving war. Liberalism: Optimistic theoretical tradition that because humans are capable of compassion and self-sacrifice for collective gains, it is possible for world politics to progress toward cooperation beyond narrow competition and war. I/NGOs, education, reason, institutional reforms. Paradigm: thought pattern Constructivism: A liberal-realist theoretical approach that sees self-interest states as the key actors in world politics, whose actions are determined by the ways states socially “construct” and then respond to the meanings they give to world politics so that as their definitions change, practices can adapt. Idealism:
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course IR IR271 taught by Professor Corgan during the Fall '08 term at BU.

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IR Definitions - IR Definitions Global Political System...

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