geol chap. 8

geol chap. 8 - Sodium +1 d. Magnesium +2 e. Calcium +2 f....

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Lecture 8 – Minerals and Rocks I. Minerals – Free of Charge a. All minerals attempt to be free of excess charge b. More anions than cations c. Anions are larger than cations d. Pack together anions e. Add cations (as needed) to balance II. Mineral – chemical formula a. Olivine (Mg, Fe 2SiO4) b. Pyroxene (Mg, Fe) SiO3 c. Amphibole Ca2(Mg, Fe)5 Si8 O22 (OH)2 III. Polymorphs a. Materials with same substance but different crystal structures b. Can reflect differences in formation (high vs. low temperatures, high vs. low pressures) c. Examples i. C – diamond and graphite ii. H2O – different forms of ice (8) iii. SiO2 – quartz, tridiymite, cristobalite iv. Al2SiO5 – andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite IV. Size of Ions a. Oxygen -2 b. Potassium +1 c.
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Unformatted text preview: Sodium +1 d. Magnesium +2 e. Calcium +2 f. Iron +2, +3 g. Aluminum +3 h. Silicon +4 V. Rocks a. Aggregates of one or more minerals b. Amorphous (non-crystalline) substance c. Three main types i. Igneous solidification of molten rock ii. Sedimentary burial products of layers of sediments (sand, mud, calcium carbonate shells) iii. Metamorphic formed by the transformation of preexisting solid rocks under the influence of high pressure and temperature VI. The Rock Cycle a. Origin of rocks; main rock types b. Processes i. Melting ii. Solidification (crystallization) iii. Weathering iv. Lithification (sediments to solid rock) 1. Compaction 2. Cementation v. Metamorphism...
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geol chap. 8 - Sodium +1 d. Magnesium +2 e. Calcium +2 f....

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