INTRODUCTION❖The temperature receptors(thermoreceptors) in the bodyadapt to thetemperaturechanges.❖Nurses & clients need tounderstand this because a hotapplication can cause burninjuries while cold applicationcan result to pain & severecirculation impairment.❖Heat & cold are applied to thebody for local & systemiceffects.
Bodily Responses to Heat & ColdSystemic Responsesoccur through heat-lossmechanisms (sweating& vasodilation) ormechanisms promotingheat conservation(vasoconstriction &piloerection) & heatproduction (shivering).Local Responses-toheat & cold occurthrough stimulation oftemperature -sensitivenerve endings within theskin.
Specific Conditions Necessitate PrecautionsImpaired mental statusImpaired circulationNeurosensory impairmentImmediately after injury & surgeryOpen wounds
Applying Heat & ColdHeatcan be applied to the body inboth dry & moist formsDry heatis applied locally by meansof a hot water bottle, aquathermiapad, disposable heat pack, orelectric pad.Moist heatis applied by means ofhot compress, hot soak, sitz bath
Applying Heat & ColdDry Coldis generallyapplied locally bymeans of a cold pack,ice bag, ice glove, orice collar.Moist Coldcan beprovided by coldcompress or a coolingsponge bath.
Applying Heat & ColdTHERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONLocal application of heat &cold in the body can bebeneficial.They can eitherbe in moist or dry forms.But before using thesetherapies, the nurse mustunderstand the HOW &WHEN of their usage.A. Heat Application1.Dry heat:Hot water bottle / bag–usedespecially at home;accessible & economical.Aquathermia pad (K-pad)- pad is attachedby a tubing to anelectrically poweredcontrol unit(waterproof); has atemperature gaugeDisposable heat packor electric heating pad-provide constant,even heat; can bemolded to the bodypart(CAUTION! Cancause burns if thesetting is too high)
Applying Heat & Cold
Applying Heat & Cold
Applying Heat & Cold2. Moist heat:Hot compress-use ofgauze pads or roll ortowelsHot pack-commerciallyprepared; provides heatfor a designated timeonly; directions for useare found on the packagelabels to initiate heatingprocess; applied to awound or injury (watertemperature - 40°CHot soak- immersing a bodypart in a solution or wrapping ingauze dressings saturated witha solution (observe steriletechnique for open wounds);use to soften or remove crusted/ dead tissues.