Bio 101 Study Guide For Exam 2

Bio 101 Study Guide For Exam 2 - DNA Structure &...

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DNA Structure & Replication – Chapter 11 What properties are required of the DNA molecule? Make copies of itself, encode information, control cells and tell them what to do, and change by mutation. Describe the structure of DNA. DNA is a double helix with two chains of alternating phosphates and sugars; two nitrogenous bases paired in the center of the helix chains. What is the basis for DNA storing information that can be copied and passed on to other cells? The basis for DNA storing information that is copied and passed on is the sequence of base pairs. What nitrogenous bases are found in DNA? There are four nitrogenous bases and they are Guanine, Adenine, Cytosine, and Thymine. Explain base pairing in DNA. Adenine pairs with Thymine and Guanine pairs with Cytosine. The sequence of nitrogenous bases on one chain is complementary to the other chain. Genetic information lies in the sequence of the base pairs. Describe how DNA can be exactly replicated prior to cell division. Strong covalent bonds are between phosphate and sugar and weak hydrogen bonds are between base pairs. The weak bonds split like a zipper to expose the nitrogenous bases. New nucleotides are attracted to exposes bases resulting in 2 identical strands of DNA. Describe the structure of RNA. How does it compare to DNA? RNA is a single strand of alternating phosphates and sugars. Uracil replaces thymine and pairs with Adenine. Cytosine and guanine still pair up. DNA is double helix and has thymine instead of Uracil.
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Describe the three types of RNA and their role in protein synthesis. The three types of RNA are Messenger RNA, Transfer RNA, and Ribosomal RNA. Messenger RNA carries genetic information from DNA to cytoplasm where it is translated into protein. mRNA of a cell changes over time, and has a life span of minutes to hours. There are as many different mRNA as proteins. It is the gene section for making proteins. Transfer RNA brings Amino Acids to site where mRNA is translated to proteins. tRNA carrying specific AAs recognize specific parts of mRNA. It associates with 3 complimentary bases on mRNA. Ribosomal RNA is the majority of RNA. Different rRNA and proteins form ribosomes. rRNA is the site of translation. It has 2 subunits, large and small. These contain rRNA and protein, and join during the formation of proteins. What is transcription? Translation? Transcription is the DNA template used to RNA is synthesized. Translation is where Proteins are synthesized, converting information from nucleic acid sequence to amino acid sequence What requirements are necessary for Transcription? Transcription requires ribonucleotides, blueprint of final product, fuel to drive sythesis, and equipment for RNA assembly How is the information in DNA copied to RNA during transcription? 2 DNA stands split at the RNA polymerase and the exposed nitrogen bases attach
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Wetherbee during the Spring '08 term at Rhode Island.

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Bio 101 Study Guide For Exam 2 - DNA Structure &...

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