Bio 101 Study Guide For Exam 4

Bio 101 Study Guide For Exam 4 - Section 1 - Animal...

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What phylum of animals lacks true tissue? The Porifera Phylum lacks true tissue. What is a tissue? A tissue is a group of cells which work together for a particular function. What are three tissue layers that arise during embryonic development and what do the give rise to? The three tissues layers that arise during embryonic development are Endoderm, Mesoderm, and Ectoderm. Endoderm is the innermost tissue and forms the digestive track. Mesoderm is the middle tissue and forms the musculature, blood, bone, reproductive & other organs. Ectoderm is the outermost tissue and forms the skin, nervous tissue, and sensory organs. What phyla have only 2 germ (tissue) layers? The 2 phyla are Cnidarians and Ctenophores. What is radial symmetry? Bilateral symmetry? Radial Symmetry (Radiata) is round at the top and the bottom. Bilateral Symmetry means the organism is two sided. It has a head/tail, top/bottom, or left/right. Organisms undergo Cephalization which produces a head. What animal phyla have radial symmetry? Phyla are Cnidaria, Hydras and Jellyfish; Ctenophora, comb jellies; and Echinoderms, starfish and sea urchins. What is the evolutionary importance of cephalization? Cephalization is the development of the brain; evolutionary tendency for important functions of the nervous system to move forward in the brain. What are 3 types of animal groups based on design of body cavity? The three types of animal groups are Acoelomates, Pseudocoelomates, and Coelomates. Which phyla are acoelomates? Pseudocoelomate? Coelomates? Acoelomates are Platyhelminthes; Pseudocoelomates are nematods; Coelomates are the rest of the animals. What advantages does a coelom provide? The Coelom cushions organs and holds the orgasn in place. It separates the internal environment form the external environment. It also allows internal organs to grow and move independently of outer body. What are two major groups of coelomates based on development of the coelom? The two major groups of coelomates are protostomes and deuterostomes. 1
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How do protostomes & deuterostomes differ? Protostomes’ cleavage is spiral, cells split in a spiral pattern, and is determinate, how far divided cells develop. In the coelom formation the mesoderm splits. The fate of a blastopore is it forms a mouth. Deuterstomes’ cleavage is radial, cells split along plane, and is indeterminate, can have twins. In the coelom formation the mesoderm folds. The fate of blastopore is it forms an anus. What animal phyla are protostomes? Deuterostomes? Mollusks, Annelids, and Arthropods are protostomes. Echinoderms and Chordates are deuterostomes. Describe the composition of sponges. Sponges’ characteristics are sessile (attached to bottom), most are marine, no symmetry
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Wetherbee during the Spring '08 term at Rhode Island.

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Bio 101 Study Guide For Exam 4 - Section 1 - Animal...

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