1001 Lecture 12re ALL Dutch Old

1001 Lecture 12re ALL Dutch Old - ART1001...

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Unformatted text preview: ART 1001: Introduction to Fine Arts Professor: Darius A. Spieth Art History Program LSU School of Art Outline Lecture 12 Political situation in Flanders and the Netherlands at the turn of the 17th century Art in Flanders (Catholic tradition) Art in the Dutch Republic (Protestant/ Calvinist tradition) “Specialties” of Dutch painting: Landscape, interiors, genre, still lifes French Academic Classicism during the 17th century Political Situation in Flanders and The Netherlands at the Turn of the 17th Century Present­day country, The Netherlands (= low countries=Holland; adj. Dutch or northern netherlandish) and Flanders (today Belgium; adj.: Flemish, i.e. from northern Belgian) formed one country at the turn of the 17th century; collective term: Netherlandish painting (Dutch + Flemish) > used in a historical context only Since 1477 part of the Habsburg Empire, ruled from Spain (Austria also part of it); predominantly Catholic; Dutch/French language divide Rise of Protestantism in neighboring Germany: Northern Provinces adopt Protestantism or Calvinism (radical form of Protestantism) War of Independence from Catholic Habsburg Empire since 1568; merged with Thirty Years’ War (1618­1648) 1648: Formal recognition of Independent Dutch Republic (Peace of The Hague) Political Situation in Flanders and The Netherlands at the Turn of the 17th Century After 1648: Beginning of the Dutch “Golden Age” of art Rise of a wealthy class of merchants Colonial expansion, oversea trade The Netherlands wealthiest country in Europe: emergence of a wealthy middle class Great accumulation of artistic talent; wealthy client base Protestant iconography, aesthetic preferences Rubens: Flemish Painter­Entrepreneur Peter Paul Rubens, Elevation of the Cross, Antwerp Cathedral, Antwerp, 1610, oil o/panel Associated with the Southern (Catholic) part of the Low Countries Continues the tradition of the Baroque style: heightened emotionalism, voluptuous bodies, rose­colored flesh (qualities of Rubensian art) Influence of Italian art: Michelangelo, Tintoretto, Caravaggio Muscular bodies, chiaroscuro, dramatic light effects Rubens: Flemish Painter­Entrepreneur Rubens: Painter with large workshop, businessman, art dealer, diplomat, wealthy man Well connected to influential political circles: Charles I of England, Medici of Florence Commissions from political leaders Actual execution of works of art left to his large workshop in Rubens: Flemish Painter­Entrepreneur Peter Paul Rubens, Arrival of Maria de’ Medici at Marseilles, 1622­1625, oil o/canvas One of Rubens’s largest commissions 21 large canvases recounting the life of Maria de’ Medici, wife of French king Henry IV (founder of the Bourbon dynasty), for Luxemburg Palace in Paris Execution by Rubens’s workshop in Antwerp Rubens: Flemish Painter­Entrepreneur Here: Maria de’ Medici (from the Florentine family) arrives by boat in Marseilles (Southern France) from Italy to marry Henry IV Greeted by allegorical figure of France with fleur­de­lis coat Captain of the vessel (with coat of arms of Medici family): Cross of the Order of Malta Bottom: Mythological figures>Neptune and Nereids Other scenes in cycle: assassination of Henry IV by religious fanatic, coronation Maria de’ Medici to Queen of France, reconciliation with her son Louis XIII Van Dyck: Flemish Court Painter in London Anthony Van Dyck, Charles I Dismounted, c. 1635, oil o/canvas Assistant in Rubens’s workshop in Antwerp; built artistic reputation of his own; worked in Genoa (Italy) as well Hired by British king Charles I as his court painter Specialty: portrait painting (popular in GB) Here: Charles I dismounted (reference to hunt?>privilege of aristocracy) Landscape with Thames river Self­assertive pose; pose of landed gentry, nobility Important Point: Now Leaving Catholic Flanders (South); Entering Protestant Netherlands (North)! Honthorst: A Dutch Caravaggio Gerrit van Honthorst, Supper Party, 1620, oil o/canvas Artist from the Dutch town of Utrecht Caravaggiesque tenebrism (single, hidden source of light: drama) NOT a Biblical scene Protestant tradition: genre (lowlife scenes), landscapes, portraits; NOT classical allegories, rarely scenes from the Bible Honthorst: A Dutch Caravaggio Possibly a tavern scene First example of Dutch genre (lowlife) scene Right: allegory of gluttony (?), implications of prostitution (?): attractive young woman and old procuress (?) Deeply moralizing picture: warning against excess, gluttony A theme to the liking of Dutch Protestant burghers Hals: Dutch Guild Portraits Frans Hals, Archers of Saint Hadrian, c. 1633, oil o/canvas Painters in the Netherlands were specialized in types of subject matter Hals: group portraits of guilds and confraternal organizations Active in the Dutch town of Haarlem Hals: Dutch Guild Portraits Archers of Saint Hadrian: Dutch civic militia group that fought in war against Spain Dressed in uniform for banquet; spears, flags, military paraphernalia Each sitter individualized: soldier and citizen Orange: national color of the Netherlands Rembrandt: Master of Nocturnes Rembrandt van Rijn, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632, oil o/canvas Famous work from Rembrandt’s early career, after move from small town of Leiden to Amsterdam in 1631 (biggest city in the Netherlands, NOT the capital>The Hague) Surgeon’s Guild in Amsterdam Morbid detail: dissection of corpse Dissection of bodies for medical training relatively new; allowed improvement of health sciences Rembrandt: Master of Nocturnes Rembrandt van Rijn, The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (Night Watch), 1642, oil o/canvas Popular title Night Watch misleading Civic guard group from Amsterdam Sitters individualized, variety of poses, uniforms, arms Rembrandt: Master of Nocturnes Not a intended as a nocturne (night scene) like so many other works by Rembrandt (although it looks like one) One of a series of six paintings commissioned in 1640 for assembly and banquet hall of the Kloveniersdoelen (Musketeers’ Hall) in Amsterdam Many Dutch artists created group portraits: ready market in the new Dutch republic; expression of one’s civic pride Public art (displayed in publicly Rembrandt: Master of Nocturns Rembrandt van Rijn, Return of the Prodigal Son, c. 1665, oil o/canvas Example of a true nocturne by Rembrandt Created many Biblical scene (R. is the exception to the rule that Dutch art is secular) Attempt to re­create Near Eastern context No haloes, no saints, no Madonnas (Rembrandt’s art is a Protestant art) Attempt to situate Biblical stories in correct historical and cultural context Biblical (=Near Eastern) “types,” psychological introspection Here: Old father welcomes back the lost “prodigal son;” embrace as symbol for forgiveness, brothers watch on Rembrandt: Master of Etchings Rembrandt van Rijn, Christ with the Sick around Him, Receiving the Children (Hundred Guilder Print), c. 1649, etching Most famous printmaker of 17 th century Etchings: copper plate with wax coating or varnish, which artist scrapes away Acid bath “bites out” the artist’s design Another nocturnal scene; miracle healings performed by Jesus Rembrandt: Master of Etchings Rembrandt etchings a great commercial success (hence popular name Hundred Guilder Print> 10 small gold coin) Rembrandt’s fame spread throughout Europe by means of his prints Plate reworked many times: print known in different “stages” Iconography accommodates Protestant interpretation of scriptures Rembrandt’s Three Crosses, Third State (Left), 1653, Fourth State (Right), ca. 1660, drypoint and burin Rembrandt: Master of Nocturnes Rembrandt van Rijn, Self­Portrait, c. 1659­1660, oil o/canvas Rembrandt created a long series of self­portraits documenting his life Various attires, stages in his life, psychological states Here: older man with painter’s utensils (brushes, palette, maulstick), no vanity expressed (as in self­ portraits from the height of his fame) Background: perfect free­hand circle as sign of his artistic proficiency Cuyp: Dutch Landscapes Aelbert Cuyp, A Distant View of Dordrecht, with a Milkmaid and Four Cows and Other Figures (The ‘Large Dort’), late 1640s, oil o/canvas Another area of Dutch specialty painting: landscape painting Cuyp: Dutch Landscapes The Netherlands: flat countryside, hardly above sea level, low horizon line Famous for its windmills, pastures, diary farming (cheese) Cow>unofficial national animal Lots of pictures of idyllic landscapes in the Low Countries >shepherding Not an Arcadian or classical Landscape Background identifiable: town of Dordrecht Van Ruisdael: Dutch Landscapes Jacob van Ruisdael, View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen, c. 1670, oil o/canvas Another “landscape specialist” Low horizon line, interest in cloud formation Domestic well being: linen to be bleached in the sun, church in distance (life style pleasing to God>religious overtones can be expressed through landscape painting in Protestant tradition), windmills Vermeer: Dutch Domestic Scenes Jan Vermeer, The Letter, 1666, oil o/canvas Master painter (“specialist”) of Dutch domestic life; inn keeper and art dealer Long forgotten, but rediscovered in 19th and 20th centuries Appeal of “soft focus” renderings of Dutch interiors>use of camera obscura (primitive viewing device, aid for draftsmen) Examples of a Camera obscura Vermeer: Dutch Domestic Scenes Iconography: Woman with lute in center in being handed a love letter by maid servant Upscale bourgeois (middle class) interior Material wealth is stressed Spectator as “intruder” in scene of domestic harmony Vermeer: Dutch Domestic Scenes Jan Vermeer, Allegory of the Art of Painting, 1670­1675, oil o/canvas Allegorical self­portrait of Vermeer Clio with trumpet: muse of History Interior of a well­to­do member of the Dutch middle class Map of Dutch Republic on wall Drawn curtain defines spatial separation to spectator “Soft focus” suggests use of camera obscura Dou: Rembrandt’s Student Gerrit Dou, Astronomer by Candlelight, late 1650s, oil on panel Student of Rembrandt, renown for his small­scale cabinet pictures, minutely rendered Although typical representatives of genre art, some scenes, such as this one deal with the pursuit of knowledge and science Hall mark: groin­vaulted settings (pointed arch format) Dou: Rembrandt’s Student Gerrit Dou, The Dropsical Woman, 1663, oil on panel Dropsy: archaic medical term for swelling of soft tissues due to the accumulation of excess water (edema due to congestive heart condition) Interest in medical subjects links picture to Rembrandt; early modern sciences Richly decorated interior, material prosperity foregrounded, genre overtones In the 19th century, enormous prices were being paid for Dou’s art; for centuries (18 th and 19th) he was probably the most expensive artist Brouwer: Genre Scenes Adriaen Brouwer, The Smokers, c. 1636, oil o/canvas A typical example of a Dutch genre painting Tavern scene: smokers, revelers, drunkenness, rude behavior, ugly sitters Brouwer: a “specialist” for this iconography Claesz: Dutch Still Life Painting Pieter Claesz, Vanitas Still Life, 1630s, oil o/canvas Still lifes: another “specialty” type of Dutch painting Hundreds of “little masters” >highly skilled, specialized painters Still lifes: pretext for Dutch burghers to show off their material wealth Vanitas symbol: skull Reminder of mortality, moralizing symbolism>all wealth is temporal Kalf: Dutch Still Life Painting Willem Kalf, Still Life with a Late Ming Ginger Jar, 1669, oil o/canvas Superb skill in rendering luxury goods: goblets, silver tray, peeled lemon (imported, hence expensive) Ginger pot:, Oriental carpet: luxury goods from far away countries (Near and Far East) Hint at origin Dutch wealth: Overseas trade, colonial expansion into Asia France in 17th Century Rule of the “Sun King” Louis XIV (ruled 1661­ 1715) Centralization (all power, cultural activity centralized in Paris) Leading European power of the 17th and 18th centuries (ex. language) Religious conflicts, persecutions of Protestants (Huguenots) Poussin: The Invention of Academic Classicism Nicolas Poussin, Et in Arcadia Ego, c. 1655, oil o/canvas Poussin established the dominance of classical mythology, history in French painting for the next 300 years Poussin’s classicism will become the dogma of academic training in art until end of 19th century Born in Normandy, but lived most of his life in Rome; disdained Parisian art world Returned to Paris only at the end of his life Recreated landscapes of Classical Antiquity for his mythological scenes and history paintings Poussin: The Invention of Academic Classicism Poussin invented the hierarchy of genres: Top: History painting (painting depicting historical or mythological events from Classical Antiquity) Bottom: Still lifes, genre (lowlife) scenes, portrait painting, etc. History painting will become the gold standard of academic training Poussin: The Invention of Academic Classicism Et in Arcadia Ego typical Poussin work Idealized, Arcadian setting Shepherds in Arcadia decipher inscription on a coffin “I, too, in Arcadia” Discovery of their own mortality Female figure: Spirit of Death? Lorrain: The Classical Landscape Claude Lorrain, Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba, 1648, oil o/canvas Lorrain cited together with Poussin as master painter of classical (Roman) landscapes Emphasis on atmospheric effects (haziness, soft focus) Famous for all­suffusing golden light of his pictures Lorrain: The Classical Landscape Harbor Scenes typically associated with Lorrain 17th century French harbor, but pretext of Biblical story line Near Eastern fantasy Setting that created sense of remoteness in time and space Le Nain: French Peasant Life Louis Le Nain, Family of Country People, c. 1640, oil o/canvas One of three brothers, all painters Example of genre (lowlife) painting (strong in Dutch tradition, but also here in France) Painted during the Thirty Years’ War (1618­1648: constant war, hardship, famines in the countryside Le Nain: French Peasant Life Le Nain depicted peasants with dignity and subservient Not peasants in revolt Despite difficult life, they are self­content Not starving Brownish tonalities typical for genre scenes ...
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  • Fall '07
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  • The Bible, Amsterdam, Rembrandt, oil o/canvas

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