Nervous System Brain and Cranial Nerves (2).ppt - Brain and...

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Unformatted text preview: Brain and Cranial Nerves HLTH128: Anatomy and Physiology I Terminology Hemispheres Gyrus (Gyri) Sulcus (Sulci) Longitudinal Fissure Ventricles – CSF Anatomy of the Brain Cerebrum Cerebellum Diencephalon – Thalamus – Hyothalamus Brain Stem – – – Midbrain Pons Medulla oblongata Cerebrum Anatomy – – – – – Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Occipital lobe Precentral gyrus Postcentral gyrus Functions – – – – Sensory cortex Motor cortex Emotion Intellectual processes – Auditory – Visual – Speech Cerebellum Anatomy – Hemispheres Functions – Compares intended movement with what is actually happening – Smooth, coordinated movements – Posture/balance Brain Stem Anatomy – Medulla oblongata – Pons – Midbrain Functions – Medulla Relays motor and sensory information Regulates heartbeat, breathing and blood vessel dilation – Pons Control breathing Protective Coverings (Meninges) Dura mater Dense connective tissue Arachnoid Nonvascular connective tissue Pia mater Highly vascular Covers surface of the brain and spinal cord and invaginates along cortical surface to form perivascular spaces Cerebral Spinal Fluid Formed in the choroid plexus Reabsorbed into saggittal sinus by arachnoid villi Protects brain against concussive trauma removes waste products Foramen of Monro Cranial Nerves I: Olfactory II: Optic III: Oculomotor IV: Trochlear V: Trigeminal VI: Abducens VII: Facial VIII:Vestibulocochlear – Acoustic IX: Glossopharyngeal X: Vagus XI: Accessory XII: Hypoglossal .htm Mnemonic On Old Olympus’ Tower Top A Fin And German Viewed A Hop MNEMONIC OLFACTORY OPTIC OCULOMOTOR TROCHLEAR TRIGEMINAL ABDUCENS FACIAL VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL VAGUS ACCESSORY HYPOGLOSSAL OH ONCE ONE TAKES THE ANATOMY FINAL VERY GOOD VACATION A-HEAD CN I: OLFACTORY Cranial nerve I Function: – smell Clinical test for damage: – determine whether a person can smell something aromatic CN II: OPTIC Cranial nerve II Function: – vision Clinical test for damage: – tests peripheral vision and visual acuity Effects of damage: – blindness in part or all of the visual field CNIII: OCULOMOTOR Cranial nerve III Function: – eye movements, opening of eyelid, constriction of pupil, focusing, proprioception Clinical tests for injury: – differences in pupil size; pupillary response to light; eye tracking Effects of damage – dropping eyelid, dilated pupil, double vision CNIV: TROCHLEAR Cranial nerve IV Function: eye movements and proprioception Clinical test for injury: ability to rotate eye inferolaterally Effects of damage – double vision, patient tilts head toward affected side CN V: TRIGEMINAL Cranial nerve V Function: sensory nerve of the face Clinical test for injury: – corneal reflex; sense of touch, pain, and temperature; clench teeth; move mandible side to side Effects of damage: – loss of sensation and impaired chewing CN VI: ABDUCENS AND CN VII: FACIAL Cranial Nerve VI Function: Eye movements Clinical test: lateral eye movement Effects of damage: inability to rotate eye laterally; at rest – eye rotates medially because of action of antagonistic muscles Cranial Nerve VII Function: facial expression; sense of taste Clinical test: motor functions – close eyes, smile, whistle, frown, raise eyebrows; taste Effects of damage: inability to control facial muscles; distorted sense of taste CN VIII: VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR Cranial Nerve VIII Function: hearing and equilibrium Clinical tests: test hearing, balance, and ability to walk a straight line Effects of damage: deafness, dizziness, nausea, loss of balance, and nystagmus CN IX: GLOSSOPHARANGEAL AND CN X: VAGUS Cranial Nerve IX Function: swallowing, salivation, gagging; touch, pressure, taste, and pain sensations from tongue, pharynx, and outer ear Clinical tests: gag reflex, swallowing, and coughing Effects of damage: difficulty swallowing Cranial Nerve X Function: swallowing; taste; speech; respiratory, CV, and GI regulation; sensations of hunger, fullness, and intestinal discomfort Clinical tests: test with cranial nerve IX Effects of damage: hoarseness or loss of voice; impaired swallowing and GI motility CN XI: ACCESSORY AND CN XII: HYPOGLOSSAL Cranial Nerve XI Cranial Nerve XII Function: swallowing; head, neck, and shoulder movements Clinical tests: rotate head and shrug shoulders against resistance Effects of damage: impaired movement of head, neck, and shoulders; paralysis of sternocleidomastoid Function: tongue movements of speech, food manipulation, and swallowing Clinical test: tongue function Effects of damage: difficulty in speech and swallowing; atrophy of tongue; inability to stick out (protrude) tongue ...
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