pubh_6009_week_8_lectures.pdf - Individual Interviews The...

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Individual Interviews
The Spectrum of Interviewing Methods Structured interviews Focused or semistructured interviews Unstructured interviews Standardized interviews In-depth interviews In-depth interviews Survey interviews Survey interviews Clinical interviews Clinical history taking Group interviews Group interviews Life history Source: Minichiello, Victor, Rosalie Aroni, Eric Timewell, and Loris Alexander (1995). In-Depth Interviewing: Principles, Techniques, Analysis (Second Edition). Melbourne: Longman.
In-Depth Interviews An exchange between one interviewer and one respondent “Conversational partnership”; “conversation with a purpose” Encourage the respondent to take an active role in determining the flow and direction of discussion Conversation generates empirical data by enabling respondents to talk freely Requires mental agility, sensitivity, and practice
In-Depth Interviews Guided by a few broad topics, rather than a detailed questionnaire Ways to create structure without compromising the open exchange that is the hallmark of qualitative interviewing
Group Interviewing
Focus Groups “A focus group is the use of group interaction to produce data and in sights that would be less accessible without the interaction found in a group .” —Morgan (1988)
Types of Group Interviewing Natural groups: groups of people who preexist the research interview For example, households, workplace, micro-credit members Community interviews: a participatory method meant to encourage active participation by community members Empower participants For example, villages, slum areas—beneficiaries Consensus panels: specifically used to reach agreement Sometimes used to facilitate agreement For example, Delphi, nominal Focus groups
Group Interviewing Mixes observation and interviewing Overlaps with individual interviewing (more) and with participant observation (less) Opportunity to gather data on interactions, group dynamics, and “natural” vocabulary Less emphasis on interaction between researcher and participant and more on that among participants
Group Interviewing Strengths Good for accessing cultural norms and standards Good for data on whats and whys—for interpreting descriptive statistics Good for generating hypotheses Provides data on group interactions Weaknesses Not as good for exploring marginalized, less acceptable views Hierarchies and social dominance can be intensified Not as good for predicting individual behaviors or eliciting individual beliefs
Different Ways to View Groups What is a community? Village Municipal ward Or also: Everyone who drives a taxi Everyone who uses a water pump Parents of children in a school This is where community interviews and natural groups can look similar However, community interviews are meant to be participatory and facilitate engagement, not just gather data
Different Ways to Use Group Interviewing Natural group interviews to gather data on bed-net use for malaria prevention

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