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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 07 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis 2 Outline Flowering Plants Photosynthetic Pigments Photosynthesis Light Reactions Noncyclic Cyclic Carbon Fixation Calvin Cycle Reactions C4 CAM Photosynthesis 3 Photosynthetic Organisms All life on Earth depends on a star 93 million miles away Provides photosynthesizers with solar energy Photosynthesis: A process that captures solar energy Transforms solar energy into chemical energy Energy ends up stored in a carbohydrate Only 42% of sun's energy directed towards Earth reaches surface Of this, only 2% is captured by photosynthesizers Of this, only a tiny portion results in biomass Photosynthesizers produce all food energy Photosynthetic Organisms 4 Photosynthesis 5 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis takes place in the green portions of plants Leaf of flowering plant contains mesophyll tissue Cells containing chloroplasts Specialized to carry on photosynthesis CO2 enters leaf through stomata Diffuses into chloroplasts in mesophyll cells In stroma, CO2 combined with H2O to form C6H12O6 (sugar) Energy supplied by light Leaves and Photosynthesis 6 Photosynthesis 7 Photosynthetic Pigments Pigments: Chemicals that absorb some colors in rainbow more than others Colors least absorbed reflected/transmitted most Absorption Spectra Graph showing relative absorption of the various colors of the rainbow Chlorophyll is green because it absorbs much of the reds and blues of white light Photosynthetic Pigments 8 Photosynthetic Reactions: Overview Light Reaction: Photosynthesis 9 Chlorophyll absorbs solar energy This energizes electrons Electrons move down electron transport chain Pumps H into thylakoids
+ Used to make ATP out of ADP and NADPH out of NADP Calvin Cycle Reaction CO2 is reduced to a carbohydrate Reduction requires the ATP and NADPH Photosynthesis Overview 10 Photosynthetic Reactions: The Light Reactions Photosynthesis 11 Light reactions consist of two alternate electron pathways: Noncyclic electron pathway Cyclic electron pathway Capture light energy with photosystems Pigment complex helps collect solar energy like an antenna Occur in the thylakoid membranes Both pathways produce ATP The noncyclic pathway also produces NADPH Photosynthesis 12 Light Reactions: The Noncyclic Electron Pathway Takes place in thylakoid membrane Uses two photosystems, PS-I and PS-II PS II captures light energy Causes an electron to be ejected from the reaction center (chlorophyll a) Electron travels down electron transport chain to PS I Replaced with an electron from water Which causes H+ to concentrate in thylakoid chambers Which causes ATP production PS I captures light energy and ejects an electron Transferred permanently to a molecule of NADP+ Causes NADPH production Light Reactions: Noncyclic Electron Pathway 13 Photosynthesis 14 Light Reactions: The Cyclic Electron Pathway Uses only photosystem I (PS-I) Begins when PS I complex absorbs solar energy Electron ejected from reaction center Travels down electron transport chain Causes H+ to concentrate in thylakoid chambers Which causes ATP production Electron returns to PS-I (cyclic) Pathway only results in ATP production Light Reactions: Cyclic Electron Pathway 15 Organization of the Thylakoid Membrane
PS II: Photosynthesis 16 Electron transport chain: Pigment complex and electron-acceptors Adjacent to an enzyme that oxidizes water Oxygen is released as a gas Consists of cytochrome complexes Carries electrons between PS II and PS I Also pump H+ from the stroma into thylakoid space Pigment complex and electron acceptors Adjacent to enzyme that reduces NADP+ to NADPH Has a channel for H+ flow Which drives ATP synthase to join ADP and Pi PS I: ATP synthase complex: Organization of a Thylakoid 17 Photosynthesis 18 ATP Production
Thylakoid space acts as a reservoir for hydrogen ions (H+) Each time water is oxidized, two H+ remain in the thylakoid space Electrons yield energy Used to pump H+ across thylakoid membrane Move from stroma into the thylakoid space Flow of H+ back across thylakoid membrane Energizes ATP synthase Enzymatically produces ATP from ADP + Pi This method of producing ATP is called chemiosmosis ecology Focus Photosynthesis 19 Tropical Rain Forests Equatorial; Temp>26C; Rainfall>200cm & uniform Most plants woody; many vines and epiphytes; little or no undergrowth Contribute greatly to CO2 uptake, slowing global warming Development has reduced them from 14% to 6% of Earth's surface Deforestation adds 20-30% of atmospheric CO2, but also removes CO2 sink Increasing temps also reduce productivity ecology Focus Global Warming and Tropical Rain Forests 20 Photosynthesis 21 Calvin Cycle Reactions: Overview of C3 Photosynthesis A cyclical series of reactions Utilizes atmospheric carbon dioxide to produce carbohydrates Known as C3 photosynthesis Involves three stages: Carbon dioxide fixation Carbon dioxide reduction RuBP Regeneration Photosynthesis 22 Calvin Cycle Reactions: Carbon Dioxide Fixation CO2 is attached to 5-carbon RuBP molecule Result in a 6-carbon molecule This splits into two 3-carbon molecules (3PG) Reaction accelerated by RuBP Carboxylase (Rubisco) CO2 now "fixed" because it is part of a carbohydrate The Calvin Cycle: Fixation of CO2 23 Calvin Cycle Reactions: Carbon Dioxide Reduction Photosynthesis 24 3PG reduced to BPG BPG then reduced to G3P Utilizes NADPH and some ATP produced in light reactions The Calvin Cycle Reduction of CO2 25 InLine Figure p125 Calvin Cycle Reactions: Regeneration of RuBP Photosynthesis 26 RuBP used in CO2 fixation must be replaced Every three turns of Calvin Cycle, Five G3P (a 3-carbon molecule) used To remake three RuBP (a 5-carbon molecule) 5 X 3 = 3 X 5 The Calvin Cycle Regeneration of RuBP 27 Photosynthesis 28 Importance of Calvin Cycle G3P (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate) can be converted to many other molecules The hydrocarbon skeleton of G3P can form Fatty acids and glycerol to make plant oils Glucose phosphate (simple sugar) Fructose (which with glucose = sucrose) Starch and cellulose Amino acids Photosynthesis 29 C4 Photosynthesis In hot, dry climates Stomata must close to avoid wilting CO2 decreases and O2 increases O2 starts combining with RuBP instead of CO2 Photorespiration, a problem solve in C4 plants In C4 plants Fix CO2 to PEP a C3 molecule The result is oxaloacetate, a C4 molecule In hot & dry climates Avoid photorespiration Net productivity about 2-3 times C3 plants In cool, moist, can't compete with C Chloroplast distribution in C4 vs. C3 Plants 30 CO2 Fixation in C4 vs. C3 Plants 31 Photosynthesis 32 CAM Photosynthesis Crassulacean-Acid Metabolism CAM plants partition carbon fixation by time During the night CAM plants fix CO2 C4 molecules, in large vacuoles Forms Stored During daylight NADPH and ATP are available Stomata closed for water conservation C molecules release CO to Calvin cycle 4 2 CO2 Fixation in a CAM Plant 33 Climatic Adaptation: Photosynthesis
Each method of photosynthesis has advantages and disadvantages Depends on the climate C4 plants most adapted to: high light intensities high temperatures Limited rainfall Photosynthesis 34 C3 plants better adapted to Cold (below 25C) High moisture CAM plants better adapted to extreme aridity CAM occurs in 23 families of flowering plants Also found among nonflowering plants Photosynthesis 35 Review Flowering Plants Photosynthetic Pigments Photosynthesis Light Reactions Noncyclic Cyclic Carbon Fixation Calvin Cycle Reactions C4 CAM Ending Slide Chapter 07 Photosynthesis ...
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