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physiology chapter 13 respiratory system

physiology chapter 13 respiratory system - Chapter 13 The...

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Chapter 13 The Respiratory System (Omit question about dead space from study guide questions)
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Respiration General function is to obtain O 2 for use by the body’s cells and to eliminate the CO 2 the body cells produce (how?) Encompasses two separate but related processes 1. _______ respiration 2. _______ respiration
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Internal Respiration ________ respiration Refers to metabolic processes carried out within the mitochondria, which use O 2 and produce CO 2 , while deriving energy from nutrient molecules http://home.earthlink.net/~dayvdanls/FormingATP.GIF Total ATP = 32
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External Respiration The exchange of O 2 and CO 2 between the external environment and the cells of the body Steps involved 1. __________ – movement of air into and out of the lungs 2. _____ and ____ are exchanged between air in alveoli and blood within the __________ capillaries by means of diffusion 3. ________ transports O 2 and CO 2 between lungs and tissues 4. O 2 and CO 2 are exchanged between tissues and blood by process of diffusion across _________ (tissue) capillaries
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Non-respiratory functions of the respiratory system Water and heat elimination Enhancement of venous return (what does this do to CO?) Maintains acid base balance of body by eliminating H+ generating CO2 exhaled Allows for speech and other vocalizations Defends against inhaled foreign material Conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II (we’ll discuss this in the urinary section...) The nose: organ of smell Carbonic acid Bicarbonate ion
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Respiratory System Anatomy: Airways Tubes that carry air between the atmosphere and the air sacs Nasal passages (nose) Trachea (windpipe) Right and left bronchi Bronchioles ________ (air sacs) are clustered at ends of terminal bronchioles Walls contain smooth muscle innervated by _________ nervous system What does the PNS do to radius of bronchiole? How? Which receptor? What happens to airflow? What does the PNS do to radius of bronchiole? How? Which receptor? What happens to air flow? Alveoli (alveolus)
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Alveoli Thin-walled inflatable sacs Function in gas exchange Pulmonary capillaries encircle each alveolus Walls consist of a single layer of flattened ______ alveolar cells ______ alveolar cells secrete pulmonary ______ (more about this later...) Alveolar macrophages guard lumen (what do they do?) Remember Fick’s law of diffusion? Diffusion rate = ΔC * P * SA / MW * thickness Pulmonary vein Pulmonary artery Pulmonary capillaries Bronchiole
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Lungs Two lungs Tissue consists of highly branched airways, the alveoli, the pulmonary blood vessels Outer chest wall (thorax) Formed by 12 pairs of ribs which join sternum anteriorly and thoracic vertebrae posteriorly Diaphragm Dome-shaped sheet of skeletal muscle Separates thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity http://www.brooksidepress.org/Products/OperationalMedicine/DATA/op erationalmed/Lab/Chest/ChestXray.htm
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Respiratory Mechanics Important : Air moves from a _____ pressure area to a _____ pressure area; down a _______ gradient Different pressure considerations important in ventilation 1. _________
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