physiology chapter 19 peripheal endocrine glands

physiology chapter 19 peripheal endocrine glands - Chapter...

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Chapter 19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands
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Study guide questions Chap 18: omit “primary vs secondary hypo/hypersecretion of hormones”
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Peripheral Endocrine Glands Outside of the CNS Include Thyroid glands Adrenal glands Endocrine pancreas Parathyroid glands Gonads (next chapter…)
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Thyroid Gland 2 lobes of endocrine tissue joined in middle by narrow portion of gland
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Thyroid Gland Effects of thyroid hormone 1. Main determinant of basal ________ rate Increased rate increased O2 consumption Increased heat production (remember the cellular respiration equation?) 2. Increases target-cell responsiveness to __________ (epinephrine and norepinephrine) Increases the number of target cell receptors Increases heart rate and force of contraction 3. Essential for normal growth (along with growth hormone, insulin, sex hormones) 4. Plays crucial role in normal development and function of central nervous system What is the most important regulator of thyroid hormone secretion?? Answer: _________ feedback
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Thyroid Gland: regulation Secretion Regulated by negative- feedback system Feedback loop maintains thyroid hormones relatively constant Not clear WHY this occurs!
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Adrenal Glands Embedded above each kidney in a capsule of fat Composed of two endocrine organs Adrenal ______ Outer portion Secretes steroid hormones (Lipophilic or hydrophilic? Precursor molecule?) Adrenal ______ Inner portion Secretes catecholamines (What are they? Release activated by which “nervous system”?) Adrenal cortex Adrenal medulla
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Adrenal Glands Adrenal cortex Categories of adrenal steroids 1. ______________ Mainly aldosterone 2. ______________ Primarily cortisol Major role in stress response and glucose metabolism (also protein and lipid metabolism) Release stimulated by…? 3. _______________ Identical or similar to those produced by gonads We will not be discussing these
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Adrenal Cortex Aldosterone Principal action site is on distal and collecting tubules of the kidney Secretion is increased
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