Chapter 9 Outline

Chapter 9 Outline - Chapter Nine Agricultural...

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Chapter Nine: Agricultural Transformation and Rural Development I. The Imperative of Agricultural Progress and Rural Development -over 2/3 of the poorest people live in rural areas and primarily engage in subsistence agriculture -poverty, inequality, population increase, high unemployment all have origins in the stagnation and often regression of rural economies -for a long time, economic development was viewed as requiring a rapid structural transformation from agricultural to industrial/service societies (like the Lewis Two Sector Model in Ch. 3) -more recently, agr. is seen as an indispensible part of any overall economic devopment strategy II. Agricultural Growth: Past Progress and Current Challenges -over the past decades, agriculture has seen less growth than other sectors -agriculture employs many people but contributes a very small % to GNI of LDCs the share of agriculture in total GNI has decreased over past decades in most LDCs -agr. output has increased as pop. has increased, but not always to same degree; uneven progress -in sub-Saharan Africa, per capita food production has actually decreased *LDC govts often neglect the rural/agr. sector in development priorities, misplace emphasis on rapid, modern, urban industrialization since 1970s, a shift to emphasis on the huge importance of agr. and rural development for LDC development overall III. The Structure of Agrarian Systems in the Developing World Two Kinds of World Agriculture 1) highly efficient, commercial agriculture in developed countries 2) ineffecient, subsistence agriculture in LDCs
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the gap between the two is huge (in 2000, productivity in MDCs was 50x that of LDCs) -change in agr. production methods is slow, because of the high risks and uncertain rewards of subsistence agriculture -that plus rapid pop. growth has led to the deterioration of living standards for many in LDCs Peasant Agriculture in Latin America, Asia, and Africa -small-scale agr. is not just an occupation but a way of life -the small family farm is the basic unit of production in most LDCs, but… -in many LDCs, large areas of land are controlled by a small class of powerful landowners Lorenz Curves and Gini Coeffecients for the distribution of land (land holdings vs. the total proportion of land—see graph in the book) show large inequalities in many LDCs
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  • Spring '08
  • gassler
  • Subsistence agriculture, Strategy of Agricultural and Rural Development, low-productivity subsistence agr., agr.

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Chapter 9 Outline - Chapter Nine Agricultural...

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