Lab 2 PNS Spinal cord & blood supply answers.pdf -...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 16 pages.

Neuroanatomy 300754: SUMMER 2016LAB 2The PNS, spinal cord & CNS vasculatureStudents should be able to:Identify dorsal and ventral roots, grey and white rami, the cauda equina & filumterminal on models and wet specimensIdentify the location of cell bodies of sympathetic and parasympatheticpreganglionic neurons on models or wet specimensIdentify the paravertebral sympathetic chain and name its contentsObserve the normal spinal cord length and note the relationship between spinalcord level & vertebral level.Identify and locate the major external features of the spinal cord and associatedmeningesRecognise different regional levels of the spinal cord in cross section.Identify and explain the major functional regions of the grey and white matter ofthe spinal cord in transverse sectionPredict and explain the functional consequences of vascular or physicaldamage/dysfunction to discrete regions of the spinal cordIdentify major arterial and venous vessels/structures on the CNS from diagramsand specimensDescribe the flow of arterial and venous blood to and from regions of the CNSSomatic nervous systemThe major structures of the PNS are the peripheral receptors, theneuromuscular junction,the peripheral nerves (trunks & plexuses) and their associatedsensory ganglia.Peripheral receptorsReceptors can be classified by sensory modality as mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors orphotoreceptors. Each receptor is generally specialised to be sensitive to a specific type ofstimulus.Skin mechanoreceptors are encapsulated or non-encapsulated. Encapsulated endings“tune” the axon to respond to a particular kind of stimulus. They are eitherrapidly adapting(RA)i.e. they stop firing quickly in response to a constant stimulus orslowly adapting (SA),i.e. they do not stop firing. Accurate manipulation of objects requires co-operation betweenall receptor types and the motor system.Receptors inskeletal musclearemuscle spindlesand theGolgi tendon organs. Themuscle spindle is the major stretch receptor that monitors the length of the muscle and likecutaneous afferents they have RA and SA components.The Golgi tendon organ monitorsthe force exerted by a muscle during contraction.Painand temperature sensory afferentsuse “free nerve endings”.They are polymodal,i.e. they respond to >1 kind of stimulus, e.g. chemical, thermal or mechanical stimuli. Freenerve endings are found in all parts of the body except the interior of the bones and in thebrain itself.The cornea of the eye only has free nerve endings; therefore abrasions of thecornea are very painful.1
Which two peripheral receptors are largely responsible for discriminative touch?
Which peripheral receptor is often found in the epidermis?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 16 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
One
Professor
Peter
Tags
Internal carotid artery, Arteries of the head and neck

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture