Period 1 and 2 (Foundation--600) - PERIOD 1 TECHNOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSFORMATIONS TO 600 B.C.E Paleolithic History Neolithic Revolution and

Period 1 and 2 (Foundation--600) - PERIOD 1 TECHNOLOGICAL...

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PERIOD 1: TECHNOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSFORMATIONS, TO 600 B.C.E. Paleolithic History, Neolithic Revolution, and the Early River Valley Civilizations
Key Concept 1.1: Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth Paleolithic Period (600,000ish BCE to 8,000 BCE) Humans migrate out of Africato Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas Mobile groups Creative in adapting to different geographical settings Relatively egalitarianDeveloped varied and sophisticated technologies
Key Concept 1.1: Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth During the Paleolithic era, hunting-foraging bands of humans gradually migrated from East Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas, adapting their tech and cultures to new climate regions. Small, hunting-gathering bands. Originating in East Africa.
Key Concept 1.1: Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth Fire Environment specific tools
Key Concept 1.1: Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth Economic Structure Small, kin-based groups Hunter-gather societies Mostly self-sufficient Some exchanges between groups People (exogamy) Ideas Goods Tech This is based on assumptions inferred by anthropologists’ observations of present-day hunter-forager societies and DNA research on the human geonome.
Key Concept 1.2: The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies In response to the end of the last Ice Age 10,000 years ago Sedentary agriculture appears Independently, in different parts of the world. Agriculture = more reliable food supply Staple crops=less diversity Impact on the environment is intensified Cultivation of selected plants/exclusion of others Construction of irrigation systems Use of domesticated animals for food and labor
Key Concept 1.2: The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies Populations Increase Family/kin groups transition into village/urban life Patriarchy and forced labor systems develop Rise of the elites
Key Concept 1.2: The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies Pastoralism emerges in Africa and Eurasia Pastoralists tended to be more stratified than hunter-gatherers Mobile Rarely collect large amounts of material possessions Become important conduits for technological change Interactions with settled populations
I. Beginning about 10,000 years ago, the Neolithic Revolution led to the development of new and more complex economic and social systems. Permanent agricultural settlements First in the eastern Mediterranean Mesopotamia Egypt and Sub-Saharan Africa Indus River Valley Yellow/Huang He River Valley Papua New Guinea Mesoamerica The Andes
Neolithic RevolutionMore Complex Economic and Social Systems Pastoralism Grasslands Afro-Eurasia
I. Beginning about 10,000 years ago, the Neolithic Revolution led to the development of new and more complex economic and social systems.

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