FINAL NOTES

FINAL NOTES - Week 6-7: Higher Order Processes-...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Week 6-7: Higher Order Processes- Automaticity - mind has capacity to perform routine tasks automatically, which frees conscious, working memory for creativity/emergencies- ex: driving a car tasks become automatic over time to devote attention to other tasks- ex: reading automatically without conscious effort devote time to understanding - also obligatory (incapable of being suppressed)- Stroop interference effect: as seen with color-word reading inability to prevent selves from reading the color words, when supposed to recite what color it is- preattentive (unconscious) processes involved in reading are so automatic that cannot be consciously stopped interferes with ability to recite the color of the ink- kids who have no learned to read are not susceptible to Stroop effect- effect can be used as an index of the extent to which reading has become automatic- Macleod & Dunbar experiment 1. stroop effect can be learned 2. presented color names to novel shapes 3. early in training, shape names did not interfere with naming color 4. shape-naming process and color-naming process 5. made shape-naming become a more automatic process with practice- ex) driving stick shift car- Deductive reasoning- deductive reasoning: (deduction) attempt to derive logically the consequences that must be true if certain premises are accepted as true ~ mathematical- logical proof take general facts and conclude something specific from them- syllogism : all men are mortal; Socrates is a man; Socrates must be a mortal- usually solve deductive problems by relying on real-world knowledge, not laws of logic- content of syllogisms DO matter = formal logic should not be used to solve- well-trained people make use of diagrams and mental models (ex: Euler circles)- allows visualization of problem information to make the solution obvious- easiest mental models are those that form visual images- difficulty of problems correlates with # & complexity of models- syllogisms correlates more with visuospatial ability than verbal- Inductive Reasoning - inductive reasoning: (induction) attempt to infer some new principle from observations/facts that serve as clues; educated guess, not logical necessity- hypothesis construction conclude something in general based on # of observations- make sense of our experiences with past ones, or predict new ones- use set of heuristics (rule of thumb) usual working strategy- availability bias: rely on info that is readily available to us- ex: heavily publicized accidents are overestimated b/c of availability of media stories...
View Full Document

Page1 / 8

FINAL NOTES - Week 6-7: Higher Order Processes-...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online