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Unformatted text preview: Week 6-7: Higher Order Processes- Automaticity - mind has capacity to perform routine tasks automatically, which frees conscious, working memory for creativity/emergencies- ex: driving a car tasks become automatic over time to devote attention to other tasks- ex: reading automatically without conscious effort devote time to understanding - also obligatory (incapable of being suppressed)- Stroop interference effect: as seen with color-word reading inability to prevent selves from reading the color words, when supposed to recite what color it is- preattentive (unconscious) processes involved in reading are so automatic that cannot be consciously stopped interferes with ability to recite the color of the ink- kids who have no learned to read are not susceptible to Stroop effect- effect can be used as an index of the extent to which reading has become automatic- Macleod & Dunbar experiment 1. stroop effect can be learned 2. presented color names to novel shapes 3. early in training, shape names did not interfere with naming color 4. shape-naming process and color-naming process 5. made shape-naming become a more automatic process with practice- ex) driving stick shift car- Deductive reasoning- deductive reasoning: (deduction) attempt to derive logically the consequences that must be true if certain premises are accepted as true ~ mathematical- logical proof take general facts and conclude something specific from them- syllogism : all men are mortal; Socrates is a man; Socrates must be a mortal- usually solve deductive problems by relying on real-world knowledge, not laws of logic- content of syllogisms DO matter = formal logic should not be used to solve- well-trained people make use of diagrams and mental models (ex: Euler circles)- allows visualization of problem information to make the solution obvious- easiest mental models are those that form visual images- difficulty of problems correlates with # & complexity of models- syllogisms correlates more with visuospatial ability than verbal- Inductive Reasoning - inductive reasoning: (induction) attempt to infer some new principle from observations/facts that serve as clues; educated guess, not logical necessity- hypothesis construction conclude something in general based on # of observations- make sense of our experiences with past ones, or predict new ones- use set of heuristics (rule of thumb) usual working strategy- availability bias: rely on info that is readily available to us- ex: heavily publicized accidents are overestimated b/c of availability of media stories...
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- Spring '08
- Working Memory