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integumentary.docx - The integumentary system is comprised...

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The integumentary systemis comprised of theskin, hair, and nails.Skinis the largest organ of the body. It is madeup of theepidermis(outer layer),dermis(middle layer), and thehypodermis(inner, also calledsubcutaneoustissuelayer). Skin cells absorb ultraviolet radiation to produce vitamin D, which is used to promote bone development. Theintegumentary system contains the sensory receptors and glands used for protection of the skin and underlyingtissues. The integumentary system plays an important role in protecting internal organs from extreme temperaturechanges as well as pathogenic (disease-causing) microorganisms. If the integumentary system is damaged andmicrobes or foreign objects make their way into the body, it is thelymphatic systemthat is responsible for mountingthe attack to defend the body’s internal environment.The skin contains several types of sense organs, each onespecialized to detect a certain type of sensory inputMerkel’s cellsandMeissner'scorpuscles=mechanoreceptorsthat detect mechanical sensory information in the form of light touch andvibration.Nociceptorsdetect pain, such as from a pin prick.Pacinian corpusclesdetect the mechanical sensoryinformation of pressure applied to the skin.Thermoreceptorsdetect hot and cold. Sensory organs embedded in theskin are designed to detect sensory information and then to relay that information to the brain. The brain theninterprets the information to determine an appropriate response.Recallendocrine glandssecretehormones,which are secreted in the bloodstream for body-widedistribution.Exocrine glandscontain secretions released through aduct(opening) into an epithelial surface or lining.Exocrine gland secretions can also release their contents onto the surface of the skin. Other types of exocrine glandsrelease their contents into an epithelial surface. (Ex. salivary amylase is released into the mouth.)Exocrine glands can be categorized by their shape and structure. Most glands in the body aremulticellular glands,which are set within epithelial tissue and release their contents through a duct to the surface.Sebaceous glands(oilglands) producesebum. Sebum helps to keep the skin and hair from drying out and inhibits the growth of harmfulmicroorganisms.Sweat glands(sudoriferous glands) produce sweat in almost every part of the skin. the secretoryportion is deep within the dermis layer of the skin. The duct extends all the way through the dermis, through theepidermis to release its contents on the external surface. The release of sweat is calledperspiration. Perspirationhelps the body to regulate its temperature through a process calledthermoregulationby releasing heat from thebody.

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Term
Spring
Professor
walcott
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