Chapter 22

Chapter 22 - *INFERENCE #1 there is a struggle for...

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BIO 152 Notes Chapter 22: Descent with Modification Overview Origin of Species – two major points (1) extant species are descendents of ancestral species (2) proposed this happens by means of “natural selection” evolution – the change over time in the composition of a population Concept 22.1 Aristotle scala naturae , animals are perfect/permanent Carolus Linnaeus – Swedish, invented taxonomy Georges Cuvier – French, paleontologist, believed in common extinctions, “catastrophism” James Hutton – Scottish, geologist, gradual mechanisms still happening today force change, “gradualism” Charles Lyell – gradual mechanisms occur at same rate (past and present), “uniformitarianism” Jean-Baptiste Lamarck – evolution, “use and disuse” (giraffe), inheritance of acquired characteristics Concent 22.2 Ernst Mayr OBSERVATION #1 – populations will increase exponentially if offspring is fertile OBSERVATION #2 – populations tend to remain stable in size OBSERVATION #3 – resources are limited
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Unformatted text preview: *INFERENCE #1 there is a struggle for existence within populations, fighting for resources OBSERVATION #4 no two individuals are exactly alike OBSERVATION #5 much of this variation is heritable *INFERENCE #2 survival depends of heritable traits (fitness) *INFERENCE #3 favorable characteristics accumulate over generations Thomas Malthus inescapable consequences of a populations potential to increase faster than resources {increases in the frequencies of favored traits, whether the environment is changing is not, is an important source of evolutionary change} artificial selection man-modified species Concept 22.3 homology similarities resulting from common ancestry (homologous structures) vestigial organs structures of marginal, if any, importance to the animal endemic found nowhere else in the world convergent evolution bat wings vs. bird wings...
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Chapter 22 - *INFERENCE #1 there is a struggle for...

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