Chapter 22

Chapter 22 - *INFERENCE#1 – there is a struggle for...

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BIO 152 Notes Chapter 22: Descent with Modification Overview Origin of Species – two major points (1) extant species are descendents of ancestral species (2) proposed this happens by means of “natural selection” evolution – the change over time in the composition of a population Concept 22.1 Aristotle scala naturae , animals are perfect/permanent Carolus Linnaeus – Swedish, invented taxonomy Georges Cuvier – French, paleontologist, believed in common extinctions, “catastrophism” James Hutton – Scottish, geologist, gradual mechanisms still happening today force change, “gradualism” Charles Lyell – gradual mechanisms occur at same rate (past and present), “uniformitarianism” Jean-Baptiste Lamarck – evolution, “use and disuse” (giraffe), inheritance of acquired characteristics Concent 22.2 Ernst Mayr OBSERVATION #1 – populations will increase exponentially if offspring is fertile OBSERVATION #2 – populations tend to remain stable in size OBSERVATION #3 – resources are limited
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Unformatted text preview: *INFERENCE #1 – there is a struggle for existence within populations, fighting for resources OBSERVATION #4 – no two individuals are exactly alike OBSERVATION #5 – much of this variation is heritable *INFERENCE #2 – survival depends of heritable traits (fitness) *INFERENCE #3 – favorable characteristics accumulate over generations Thomas Malthus – inescapable consequences of a population’s potential to increase faster than resources {increases in the frequencies of favored traits, whether the environment is changing is not, is an important source of evolutionary change} artificial selection – man-modified species Concept 22.3 homology – similarities resulting from common ancestry (homologous structures) vestigial organs – structures of marginal, if any, importance to the animal endemic – found nowhere else in the world convergent evolution – bat wings vs. bird wings...
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Chapter 22 - *INFERENCE#1 – there is a struggle for...

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