Chapter 25

Chapter 25 - phylogram – length of a branch indicates the...

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BIO 152 Notes Chapter 25: Phylogeny and Systematics molecular systematics – compares DNA, RNA, and other molecules to infer evolutionary relationships Concept 25.1 homoplasies – an analogous structure (e.g. bat’s wing/bird’s wing) Concept 25.2 Linnaeus – came up with the binomial binomial – genus followed by a specific epithet (e.g. Panthera pardus) Concept 25.3 cladogram – diagram implying common ancestry (not evolution) clade – group of species that include an ancestral species and all its descendants cladistics – analysis of how to make clades monophyletic – (a true clade), a common ancestor and all its descendents paraphyletic – a common ancestor and some but not all its descendents polyphyletic – grouping of several species that lack a common ancestor shared primitive character – a character that is shared beyond the taxon being defined shared derived character – evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade
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Unformatted text preview: phylogram – length of a branch indicates the number of changes that have taking place in a DNA sequence ultrametric tree – all the branches are of equal length rRNA – codes slowly mtDNA – codes quickly homologous genes – duplications lead to shared genes orthologous gene – refers to a homologous gene that is passed in a straight line but have ended up in different gene pools because of speciation paralogous gene – result from gene duplications Concept 25.5 neutral theory – much evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and therefore Darwinian selection domains – bacteria, archaea, eukarya horizontal gene transfer – occurred often in the early history of life between the domains, genes are transferred through means of transposable elements and fusion...
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This note was uploaded on 04/11/2008 for the course BIO 152 taught by Professor Mort during the Spring '08 term at Kansas.

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Chapter 25 - phylogram – length of a branch indicates the...

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