Diabetes%20FA07

Diabetes%20FA07 - Early Development of Atherosclerosis -1...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–12. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Early Development of Atherosclerosis -1 Heart muscle rarely weakens without arterial diseases (or congenital disease) Injury to arterial wall – from injury risk factors inc. high LDL, hypertension, etc When LDL is persistently high – LDL enters damaged arterial wall LDL is oxidized by reactive oxygen molecules LDL accumulating in arterial wall causes inflammation – inflammatory response in endothelium (lining)
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Early Development of Atherosclerosis -2 Inflamed endothelium captures inflammatory WBC WBCs penetrate artery wall and take up modified (oxidized) LDL WBCs enlarge → “Foam cells” – hallmark of early atherosclerotic lesion If elevated LDL persists, the lipid core will grow Enlarged foam cells may burst causing a fatty streak
Background image of page 2
Early Development of Atherosclerosis -3 Platelets signal smooth muscle cells (from artery wall) Smooth muscle cells divide and produce fibrous protein, eg, collagen Other muscle cells invade fatty streak and secrete fibrous proteins – “Fibrous cap” Cholesterol + muscle cells + fibrous proteins = PLAQUE Plaque usually grows outward rather than upward How does this affect the flow channel? Is this symptomatic or asymptomatic? What happens if we intervene here – diet and/or exercise?
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Advanced Atherosclerosis Calcium in plaque hardening Active inflammatory response in growing plaque Foam cells may produce enzymes that degrade collagen Weakens fibrous cap, leading to rupture Plaque disruption → formation of blood clots Blood clots around plaque enlargement of plaque artery narrows and loses elasticity. Blockage of artery: on-site or elsewhere
Background image of page 4
Does clotting cause heart attacks? Clot may be transient – no heart attack Clot may be partially occlusive – no heart attack May cause chest pain w/o death of cardiac muscle Clot may be sustained and occlusive – can cause sudden heart attack Triggers: dehydration, stress, diet, exercise
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Factors that directly increase risk of heart disease High blood pressure : > 140 systolic & >90 diastolic Diabetes : Insulin increases cholesterol synthesis in liver, inc LDL release into bloodstream Obesity : esp. android, inc. receptor resistance Hyperlipidemia : high blood cholesterol levels >200 mg/dl of total cholesterol HDL < 35 mg/dl
Background image of page 8
Factors that affect risk of CVD Age Gender Genetics Lifestyle factors Smoking Exercise Diet Dietary cholesterol Saturated fat Trans fatty acids Excess energy
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Factors that protect against CVD Monounsaturated fat (Polyunsaturated fat) Plant foods: Fiber and antioxidants B vitamins: Effect on homocysteine levels Moderate alcohol consumption in people over 55: phenols in red wine may be antioxidants - resveratrol
Background image of page 10
Table 6.4
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 12
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course BIBC 120 taught by Professor Crawford during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

Page1 / 47

Diabetes%20FA07 - Early Development of Atherosclerosis -1...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 12. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online