15+AcidsBases+Lecture+Notes - AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases\"ACID-Latin word acidus meaning sour(lemon\"ALKALI-Arabic word for the ashes

15+AcidsBases+Lecture+Notes - AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of...

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AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases *AP is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. © 2008 by René McCormick. All rights reserved. "ACID" --Latin word acidus, meaning sour. (lemon) "ALKALI" --Arabic word for the ashes that come from burning certain plants; water solutions feel slippery and taste bitter. (soap) Acids and bases are extremely important in many everyday applications: our own bloodstream, our environment, cleaning materials, and industry. (Sulfuric acid is an economic indicator!) ACID-BASE THEORIES ARRHENIUS DEFINITION acid-- donates a hydrogen ion (H + ) in water base --donates a hydroxide ion in water (OH ) This theory was limited to substances with those "parts"; ammonia is a MAJOR exception! BRONSTED-LOWRY DEFINITION acid-- donates a proton in water base-- accepts a proton in water This theory is better; it explains ammonia as a base! This is the main theory that we will use for our acid/base discussion. LEWIS DEFINITION acid-- accepts an electron pair base --donates an electron pair This theory explains all traditional acids and bases plus a host of coordination compounds and is used widely in organic chemistry. Uses coordinate covalent bonds. THE BRONSTED-LOWRY CONCEPT OF ACIDS AND BASES Using this theory, you should be able to write weak acid/base dissociation equations and identify acid, base, conjugate acid and conjugate base. conjugate acid-base pair --A pair of compounds that differ by the presence of one H + unit. This idea is critical when it comes to understanding buffer systems. Pay close attention now and it will pay off later! HNO 3 + H 2 H 3 O + + NO 3 neutral compound as an acid acid base CA CB NH 4 + + H 2 O R H 3 O + + NH 3 cation as an acid acid base CA CB H 2 PO 4 + H 2 O R H 3 O + + HPO 4 2 anion as an acid acid base CA CB
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The Chemistry of Acids & Bases 2 In each of the acid examples---notice the formation of H3O+-- this species is named the hydronium ionIt lets you know that the solution is acidic( hydronium, H3O+--H+riding piggy-back on a water molecule; water is polar and the + charge of the “naked” proton is greatly attracted to Mickey's chin!) NH3+ H2O RNH4++ OHneutral compound base acid CA CO32+ H2O RHCO3+ OHanion base acid CA PO43+ H2O RHPO42+ OHanion base acid CA Notice the formation of OHin each of the alkaline examples. This species is named the hydroxide ionIt lets you know that the resulting solution is basicYou try!! Exercise 1a) In the following reaction, identify the acid on the left and its CB on the right. Similarly identify the base on the left and its CA on the right. . ! CB CB CB . !
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