Unit 15 Lookout Procedures

Unit 15 Lookout Procedures - Vessel Familiarization...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) Unit 15 Lookout Procedures Lookout Procedures Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 2 Lookout Procedures Unit Learning Objectives 1. Describe and discuss lookout duties and responsibilities, lookout watch station requirements for day, night and reduced visibility. 2. Explain detection of contacts utilizing visual search techniques for surface or low altitude targets, long and short range scanning, during day, night and reduced visibility. 3. Describe and discuss dark adaptation (night vision) techniques and precautions. 4. Explain the use of lookout equipment including binoculars, bearing circles, telescopic alidade and sound-powered telephone. 5. Explain lookout manning and stations aboard the training ship. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 3 Lookout Procedures Unit Learning Objectives 1. Describes the difference in sound of bell, whistle and gong and direction in fog. 2. Describe the procedures for making lookout reports to the bridge. 3. Describes target types and demonstrate examples. 4. Discuss and explain the principles of lookout 5. Describe the procedures for making lookout reports to the bridge by voice, sound powered phone, walkie-talkie, and ship's bell. 6. Describe and discuss estimating relative bearing, speed and distance. 7. Describes the process of lookout relief, including: safety precautions (flashlight/lee side), adjusting eyes for night vision, proper protective gear, and proper information exchanged. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 4 Lookout Procedures Duties & Responsibilities of the Lookout Navigation Rule 5, Lookout states: "Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper lookout by sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and of the risk of collision, stranding and other hazards to navigation." Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 5 Lookout Procedures Duties & Responsibilities of the Lookout 46 CFR 97.27-5 Master's and Officer's Responsibility (a) Nothing in this part shall exonerate any master or officer in command from the consequences of any neglect to keep a proper lookout or to maintain a proper fire watch or from any neglect of any precaution, which may be required by the ordinary practice of seamen or by the special circumstances of the case. When circumstances require it, additional watches shall be maintained to guard against fire or other danger and to give an alarm in case of accident or disaster. Do you recognize this cadet? Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 6 Lookout Procedures Duties & Responsibilities of the Lookout A lookout is a person detailed to observe everything within an assigned lookout sector and to report everything seen in or heard from that sector to the officer of the watch (OOW). Lookout reports are usually acknowledged by a member of the bridge watch. The safety and efficiency of the ship depend to a great degree on the alertness, vigilance and effectiveness of lookouts. The chances are that the lookout will be the first to observe danger. Lookouts on watch are under the direct supervision of the OOW. However, the OOW will usually delegate this authority to the cadet officer of the watch (COOW). The COOW assigns the lookouts to their stations, making sure they are properly instructed, clothed, equipped, and relieved. Lookouts are trained in their duties by the cruise training officers. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 7 Lookout Procedures Duties & Responsibilities of the Lookout The primary duty of the deck watch is keeping a proper lookout. Lookout is the fundamental building block upon which all other watchkeeping skills are built. As a lookout, your primary responsibility is sighting, identifying, and accurately reporting to the responsible authority all objects. To carry out this responsibility effectively, you must do the following: 1. Use correct scanning procedures. 1. Sight and report everything observed in your sector. A normal tendency is to hesitate until you are certain an actual contact has been sighted. Do not hesitate. Many important sightings have been made on hunches. Everything, including previously sighted objects, should be reported when it enters your sector unless it is an object which you have been specifically ordered not to report. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 8 Lookout Procedures Duties & Responsibilities of the Lookout 1. Estimate the relative bearing, approximate range and speed. 1. Handling and care of binoculars or other lookout equipment. 1. Send accurate reports of all visual information to the bridge as quickly as you can. 1. Use correct procedures during periods of restrictedvisibility. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 9 Lookout Procedures Duties & Responsibilities of the Lookout Many state-of-the-art electronic devices are used aboard the training ship for detecting and locating contacts and as aids in navigating. These instruments can malfunction. They are not infallible and their use is frequently subject to human error. Lookouts supplement the information received from radar and other electronic equipment to provide a clearer and more complete picture of the situation. Visual sightings are the only means available to guard against contacts slipping in through blind spots and holes in the radar coverage. Under some conditions collision avoidance systems may be turned off entirely for training purposes. The availability of these devices in no way relieves you of your responsibility to see everything in your sector within range of vision and to report everything you see. Remember, the safety of the ship is dependent on the eyes of one or more human beings. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 10 Lookout Procedures Duties & Responsibilities of the Lookout Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 11 Lookout Procedures Visual Search Techniques The visual indicators that help us detect objects are many and varied some of them are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. object's color contrast with the surrounding environment distance from the object (depth of field) breaks in continuity or the size and shape of the object target movement amount of light reflected by the object You must learn to use all of your senses to keep the proper lookout. Vision is perhaps most important, but hearing, touch, and smell must also be utilize when appropriate. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 12 Lookout Procedures Visual Search Techniques "I love the smell of the ocean!" What is it that you actually smell? Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 13 Lookout Procedures Visual Search Techniques Effective visual searching does not come naturally; a lookout must learn through practice. In the daytime a person's eyes must stop on an object in order to see it. Try moving your eyes across the water rapidly from object to object and note that as long as your eyes are in motion, you see almost nothing. Now allow your eyes to move in short steps from object to object and you can really see what is there. This is known as the step-by-step method. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 14 Lookout Procedures Visual Search Techniques You cannot see all of the objects in your field of vision with equal clarity. Visual acuity is best in a central area of about 10 to 15 and decreases steadily toward the periphery of the visual field. A similar limitation of the eyes is binocular vision. For the brain to believe what is being seen, visual cues must be received from both eyes. The mind seldom believes that the object is really there if it is visible to one eye but obstructed from the other by a strut or windshield frame. A visual limitation that few lookouts are aware of is the time that the eyes require to focus on an object. Focusing is an automatic reaction, but to change focus from a nearby object, such as an instrument panel, to an vessel one mile away, may take two or more seconds. This is particularly true for older lookouts. Trained eyes are more effective than good vision. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 15 Lookout Procedures Visual Search Techniques An efficient surface scanning pattern is paramount to visual target detection. In developing a proper scan technique, remember that when your head is in motion, vision is blurred and the brain will not be able to identify conflicting traffic. Therefore a constant motion scan across the sector is practically useless. A proper scan technique is to divide your field of vision into blocks approximately 5 wide. Examine each block individually using a system that you find most comfortable (e g. from left to right or starting from the left and moving to the right, then back to the left again). This method enables you to detect any movement in a single block. It takes only a few seconds to focus on a single block and detect conflicting traffic. A moving target attracts attention and is relatively easy to see. A stationary target or one that is not moving in your field of view is very difficult to detect and is one that can pose the greatest danger. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 16 Lookout Procedures Surface Search Techniques Lookouts scan the water from the ship to the horizon and are responsible for all contacts in their sector. To search and scan, hold the binoculars steady so the horizon is in the top third of the field of vision. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 17 Lookout Procedures Surface Search Techniques Direct the eyes just below the horizon and scan for 5 seconds in as many small steps as possible across the field seen through the binoculars. Search the entire sector in 5 steps, pausing between steps for approximately 5 seconds to scan the field of view. At the end of your sector, lower the glasses and rest the eyes for a few seconds, then search back across the sector with the naked eye. When you sight a contact, keep it in the binoculars' field of vision, moving your eyes from it only long enough to determine the relative bearing. Lookouts should scan from the horizon to the zenith, aided only by sunglasses for protection from glare. Binoculars should only be used when needed to identify a contact that has been sighted with the naked eye. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 18 Lookout Procedures Dark Adaptation (Night Vision) Techniques Scanning of the assigned sector should be accomplished by moving the eyes in quick steps (about 5) across the sector just above the horizon. Shift the eyes upward about 10 and move them back in quick steps, continuing this type of search from horizon to zenith. When the zenith is reached, rest your eyes by blinking them for a few seconds, then start over. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 19 Lookout Procedures Dark Adaptation (Night Vision) Techniques If you were to go on night watch directly from a lighted compartment, you would be almost blind for a few minutes. This reaction is similar to that you experience when you walk from a lighted theater lobby into a darkened theater. As your eyes become accustomed to the weak light, your vision gradually improves. After 10 minutes you can see fairly well. After 30 minutes you reach your best night vision. This improvement of vision in dim light is called dark adaptation. Effective dark adaptation must be planned well in advance. Exposure to excessive glare during the day will hamper the ability of the eyes to adapt to the dark at night. This effect may last for several days if the exposure has been severe; therefore, lookouts scheduled for night watches should wear sunglasses as much as possible in the daytime. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 20 Lookout Procedures Dark Adaptation (Night Vision) Techniques Dark adaptation (night vision) before going on watch consists of spending at least 30 minutes in darkness or with the eyes protected by red goggles. Wearing red goggles is effective because red light does not affect the eyes. To complete adaptation for a night watch, spend 5 minutes on deck before relieving the watch. These 5 minutes allow the eyes to adjust to the amount of illumination in which they will work. Dark adaptation alone is not sufficient to ensure the highest visual keenness in the dark. Learning to use the eyes at night is like learning to use a precision instrument; you must practice to acquire the needed ability. In night lookout work, don't sweep the sky or horizon with the eyes. The eyes do not see well when they are moving. Scan the horizon in a series of movements which will allow your eyes to come to periodic rests as they scan the sector. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 21 Lookout Procedures Dark Adaptation (Night Vision) Techniques When you are using night eyes, always look a little to one side and out of the corners of your eyes. Pay attention to the things on the outer edges of your field of vision. A faint object may not be recognizable until your gaze has been directed toward it a number of times. Likewise, direct your eyes slightly above or below the horizon, as there are times when you cannot see the actual horizon unless your line of vision is purposely elevated or depressed. One of the greatest aids to night vision is contrast between object and background. Therefore, a good technique is to concentrate on the point where the sky appears to meet the water. Here objects may loom above the darker water and be seen against the lighter sky. At night, object's color contrast with the surrounding environment, target movement, and light intensity are the most important factors effecting target detection. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 22 Lookout Procedures Dark Adaptation (Night Vision) Techniques To summarize dark adaptation and night lookout techniques, remember these things: 1. Protect your eyes from light before going on night duty and while you are out. 1. Don't look directly at any light or illuminated object. 1. Use the corners of your eyes. 1. Keep your eyes moving. Quick short movements and short pauses are better than long sweeping movements and long pauses. 1. Practice what you know about seeing at night until it becomes second nature for you to use your eyes to their best advantage. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 23 Lookout Procedures Lookout Equipment Proper equipment for a lookout includes: 1. bearing equipment (gyro compass repeater, azimuth or bearing circle, telescopic alidade) 2. sound-powered telephones 3. binoculars, binocular filters 4. sunglasses (safety glass or plastic, large dark - green/gray lens, 100% UV protection, polarized, comfortable frame, eyeglass strap) 5. dark adaptation goggles 6. Flash light (waterproof, floating, LED, red filter lens, extra bulbs and batteries) 7. various articles of foul-weather (issued rain gear, appropriate cover, gloves, footwear, etc.) Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 24 Lookout Procedures Use of Binoculars The most commonly used optical equipment is a set of binoculars. The size of binoculars deemed most useful for marine work is 7x50; that means the glasses have a magnification of 7 power and an objective lens 50 mm in diameter. This ratio of magnification is a satisfying compromise between the need for magnification and the reduction of angle, or field of view, that results as the magnification is increased. Large objective lenses have excellent light-gathering characteristics, making them particularly suitable for night use. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 25 Lookout Procedures Use of Binoculars - Adjustments To gain maximum benefit from the light-gathering quality of binoculars, you must adjust the binoculars to obtain proper focus and correct distance between lenses. To obtain proper focus, observe the following steps: 1. Set both eyepieces to the +4 mark. 2. Place the binoculars firmly against the eyebrows and locate a small, well-defined object about l/2-mile distant. 3. Cover one lens (do not touch the glass). 4. Slowly turn the other eyepiece until you see a sharp image, then back off as far as possible without losing the sharpness. (Keep both eyes open; closing one will give an incorrect focus.) Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 26 Lookout Procedures Use of Binoculars - Adjustments 1. Note the reading on the scale, then repeat the above procedure two or three times to obtain the exact setting. 2. Follow the same procedure for the opposite eye. The final adjustment is to establish the inter-pupillary distance (IPD), which is the distance between your eyes. Move the barrels up and down until you see a single circle, as shown in figure 3, then note the reading on the IPD vernier between the barrels. An incorrect IPD setting will strain the eyes and waste part of the binoculars' light-gathering ability. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 27 Lookout Procedures Use of Binoculars - Adjustments You will not have your own personal binoculars-- they are passed from watch to watch--so it is important that you know your focus and IPD settings so that the binoculars may be properly adjusted at night or when there are no objects on which to focus in the daytime. For nighttime use, the focus setting is one mark less than for daytime. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 28 Lookout Procedures Use of Binoculars Contrary to widespread opinion, it is not always better to search with binoculars instead of using the naked eye. Several factors govern when and how binoculars should be used. In fog, for instance, they should be used only to identify a previously sighted contact; at night, they should be used quite often. Daytime use of binoculars depends upon the type of search being conducted. Surface lookouts should use them to scan across their sector, then use the naked eye on return sweeps. Sky lookouts should use them only to identify a target detected with the naked eye. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 29 Lookout Procedures Use of Binoculars At night the binoculars should be used more frequently than during daylight, but searches should still be made with the naked eye. You often can see objects, particularly moving ones, out of the corner of your eye, whereas they might not be detected with the binoculars because of their narrow field of view. Binoculars should never be used to scan in fog, rain, snow, or thick haze, but may be used to identify a contact detected by the naked eye. While on the bridge, DO NOT USE the captain or watch officer's binoculars. These binoculars have been adjusted for their eyes and may be need immediately in an emergency. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 30 Lookout Procedures Care of Binoculars Binoculars are fairly delicate instruments; they cannot stand much knocking about. Therefore, keep them on a short strap when wearing them to prevent their banging against solid objects. Keep the lenses dry, otherwise you will not be able to see properly. Do not let them become overheated; the cement around the lenses may melt, allowing moisture to cause the lenses to fog or bubble. Above all, keep them clean. You must be careful, however, not to damage the lenses. First, blow off loose dust, then breathe on the lenses (except in freezing weather), and gently clean them with lens paper. Rags, plain paper, handkerchiefs, or your sleeve or shirttail should not be used, as they might scratch the lens. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 31 Lookout Procedures Lookout Equipment Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 32 Lookout Procedures Sound-powered Telephone (1-JV) Sound-powered telephones are just what their name implies; instead of a battery or generator, the voice provides the power for the circuit. Failure of the electrical power system has no effect upon the sound-powered phones although one or more stations can be knocked out by damage to the circuit. Every soundpowered phone receiver is also a transmitter, and vice versa. In other words, if one earpiece on a sound-powered headset is inoperative, you normally can continue to both talk and receive through the other earpiece. The same holds true for the mouthpiece. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 33 Lookout Procedures Sound-powered Telephone (1-JV) The sound-powered telephone circuits provide communication between selected stations grouped on established circuits. Aboard the training ship there are a number of stations on the same soundpowered circuit. This configuration emphasizes the importance of strict compliance with standard telephone talker procedures and terminology. 1-JV is the designation given to the circuit over which the lookouts report. It is an important channel of vital information to the bridge and other stations aboard. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 34 Lookout Procedures Sound-powered Telephone (1-JV) The following procedure should be utilized when communicating on the sound-powered: 1. make sure the sound-powered telephone disconnect switch is activated. 1. open the sound-power telephone box and pick-up the handset 1. select the number of the station you wish to communicate with 1. crank the sound-powered telephone handle several turns 1. depress the button on the sound-power handset (failure to depress the button will prevent you from hearing or talking on the sound-powered telephone circuit) Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 35 Lookout Procedures Sound-powered Telephone (1-JV) Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 36 Lookout Procedures Lookout Stations Lookouts man stations as assigned by the OOW and perform duties under the ship's lookout instructions. The number of lookout stations varies according to the existing circumstances and conditions. The training ship always has more lookout stations than other vessels. This is primarily a function of cadet training requirements. More lookouts are required during emergency situations than in restricted visibility or under routine operating conditions. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 37 Lookout Procedures Lookout Stations This watch is stationed during fog or conditions of reduced visibility. The watch is stood in those locations where approaching ships can best be seen or heard. It is the duty of the fog lookouts to stand a vigilant watch and to detect and report everything within sight or hearing. A lookout's hearing must not be impaired. During restricted-visibility conditions, conduct a moderately fast search without binoculars, but have them within reach in case the fog suddenly lifts. The fog or restricted visibility lookout's sectors of responsibility are as follows: FORWARD LOOKOUT: Stationed as far forward and as close to the waterline as possible. Sector extends 30 on each side of the bow (330 - 030). STARBOARD LOOKOUT: Stationed on the starboard bridge wing. Sector extends from the forward lookout's boundary to the starboard beam (030 - 090). Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 38 Lookout Procedures Lookout Stations AFT LOOKOUT: Stationed as far aft and as close to the waterline as possible. Sector extends from the starboard beam clockwise to the port beam (090 - 270). PORT LOOKOUT: Stationed on the port bridge wing. Sector extends from the port bow to the forward lookout's boundary (270 - 330). Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 39 Lookout Procedures Lookout Stations Normally three to five lookouts are posted aboard the training ship. The two basic types of lookout watches established are: 1. surface lookouts who search for the targets to the horizon or sky (bow, port/starboard bridgewings) 1. the stern lookout, who is stationed aft is called the after lookout or life-buoy watch and is responsible for the sector extending from the starboard beam aft and around to the port beam. In addition to reporting all objects behind the ship, the after lookout is responsible for throwing overboard a lifebuoy promptly when a person falls over the side. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 40 Lookout Procedures Lookout Stations When you are on watch, always report everything you see, hear, or believe you see or hear. Trash in the water may seem unimportant to you, but it may indicate a vessel has passed that way or the training ship is violating national or international pollution regulations. Discolored water may mean the ship is entering a shoal area. The OOW/COOW should never reprimand lookouts for reporting objects, but they will surely be reprimanded if they do not report them. Never let the OOW/COOW spot something before you do. By reporting doubtful targets, more eyes are brought to bear on them, resulting in improved chances of identification. At night and in poor visibility, report even the faintest hunches. At such times, a hunch that you have seen something often means you really have. Do not delay the report while you try to get a better look--the main thing is speedy reporting. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 41 Lookout Procedures Lookout Stations A lookout is stationed as low down and far forward in the ship as possible during fog or other conditions of reduced visibility. From this location, the lookout is away from vessel noises, closest to approaching targets, and at a different altitude from the bridge possibly allowing the lookout to see under the fog bank. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 42 Lookout Procedures Sound In Fog You often can hear sounds at night without seeing their source. Usually you can determine the bearing of the sound and, sometimes, an estimate of its distance. When in a fog, however, sound sources are difficult to determine, because the sound may seem to come from several different directions. For this reason you must be especially vigilant in fog. Report all sounds, and do your utmost to determine their direction. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 43 Lookout Procedures Sound In Fog During restricted visibility, all ships continually sound fog signals in accordance with Navigation Rules, International - Inland. Most contacts will have to be reported by hearing prior to the actual sighting. Sounds that might be heard and must be reported are bell and whistle buoys, small craft motors, fog signals, wash of water on another ship's hull, and any other unusual sounds. You must constantly be alert and concentrate on the job at hand to hear these sounds. At night, the presence of background light such as from shore lights or from back scatter from your vessels own lights may impede the detection of conflicting targets. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 44 Lookout Procedures Sound In Fog Report sound signals using the following format: 1. WHAT IS HEARD: One prolonged blast, a rapid ringing bell, two short whistles, and so forth. 1. WHERE YOU HEAR IT: Use relative bearings. Be as accurate as possible. 1. SOUND STRENGTH: Weak, loud, or medium. 1. INTENSITY: Sound getting stronger, weaker, or remaining the same. 1. BEARING DRIFT: Sound is drifting from left to right, right to left, or remaining steady on same bearing. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 45 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports The four elements of the lookout's initial report should indicate: 1. WHAT IS IT describe the contact (ship, light, buoy, distress signal, whales, wreckage) 1. WHERE IS IT report the bearing (relative or true). It will be given in three digits, spoken digit by digit. 1. HOW FAR IS IT report the distance (hull-down, on the horizon, hull-up, close aboard) 1. WHAT DIRECTION IS IT MOVING report whether the contact is moving from right to left, left to right, opening, closing, paralleling, high speed, slow speed, dead in the water, and so forth. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 46 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Sample lookout report: "Bridge, this is the bow lookout. There is a white light broad on the starboard bow close aboard, dead in the water." Lookout reports can be amplified direction of movement, bearing drift, characteristics when discernible. with contact identification, speed, color, sound or light Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 47 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Target Detection Lookout (s) shall detect and report sightings of: 1. Distress signals 1. Persons in distress (Man overboard, shipwrecked survivors, calls for help) 1. Vessels and/or aircraft in distress 1. Derelicts, wreckage, floating or partially submerged debris 1. Pollution incident (oil spill, a sheen on the water) Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 48 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Target Detection 1. Vessel traffic and/or aircraft 1. Aids to navigation (navigation buoys and lights) 1. Danger to the vessel or hazards to navigation (land, sighting or hearing breaking serf, obstructions, discoloration of the water) 1. Reduction in visibility due to fog, mist, falling snow, heavy rainstorms, sandstorms, or any other similar cause. 1. Change in weather Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 49 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Target Detection 1. Hearing other vessels or aids to navigation (e.g. bell, gong, fog horn, maneuvering signals and engine noises) 1. Ice (Sea birds or marine mammals off-shore, ice blink) 1. Unusual sightings or any unreported change in the field of view or sector 1. Sightings of marine life in compliance with the Endangered Species Act/Marine Mammal Protection Act (50 CFR 222). (Examples: Humpback or North Atlantic right whales, stellar sea lions or sea turtles) Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 50 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Distress Signal Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 51 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Distressed Persons Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 52 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Distressed Vessel or Aircraft Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 53 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Pollution Incident Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 54 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Vessel or Aircraft Traffic Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 55 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Aids to Navigation Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 56 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Dangers to Navigation Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 57 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Reduced Visibility Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 58 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Change in Weather Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 59 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Hearing Aids to Navigation Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 60 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Ice Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 61 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Unusual Sightings Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 62 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Endangered Species Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 63 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Principles of Lookout In applying these principles, the following shall be observed: 1. Whoever is keeping the lookout must be able to give full attention to that task and no duties shall be assigned or undertaken which would interfere with the keeping of a proper lookout. 1. The duties of the person on lookout and helmsman are separate and the helmsman shall not be considered the person on lookout while hand steering. 1. There may be circumstances in which the officer of the watch could be the sole lookout in daylight. This practice will not be followed aboard the training vessel. 1. Lookouts shall be posted as low down and far forward as possible with an unobstructed, all-round view. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 64 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Principles of Lookout 1. Lookouts must proceed to and from lookout stations on the leeward side of the vessel. Use your flashlight in darkness. Keep the light trimmed on the deck. Never shine your flashlight in the lookouts eyes. A red lens filter is preferred on the bridge. 1. Remain alert. Give your full and undivided attention to lookout. 1. Stay on your feet. Do not sit or lounge about. You are expected to stand your watch. 1. Do not talk to others except as required by your lookout duties while on watch. 1. When making lookout reports, speak in a loud, clear voice using proper procedures and phraseology on the sound powered telephone system. 1. Continue to repeat all lookout reports until acknowledged by the watch officer. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 65 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Principles of Lookout 1. Before reporting to your lookout station, be sure that you understand your duties. If you do not understand your duties or any instruction, which you have been given, ask for a clarification from the person assigning the duties. 1. Call the bridge immediately whenever you are in danger or when the vessel starts to ship spray (white water). This is especially important during periods of darkness or reduced visibility when the lookout cannot be clearly observed from the bridge. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 66 Lookout Procedures Lookout Reports Principles of Lookout 1. Establish your night vision before reliving the watch. Exchange the following information when the lookout is relieved: (Lookout Relief Information) a. b. c. d. e. f. the location of any object(s) in sight, object(s) previously reported the present and past weather any special instructions or safety precautions brief description of your watch activities the status of the navigation lights. You are an essential member of the navigational watch team. Your lookout reports are critical to the safe navigation of the training ship. Report everything. It's your job! Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 67 Lookout Procedures Lookout Relative Bearings The direction of an object from a ship is called the bearing. Bearing is measured in degrees clockwise around a circle, from 000 to 360. Relative bearings have the ship's bow as a reference point; true bearings use true, or geographic north, as a reference point; magnetic bearings use the magnetic North Pole as their reference point. All three types of bearings may sometimes coincide, but such a situation is rare and of a temporary nature. Lookouts report objects in degrees of relative bearing. Bearings are always reported in three digits, and spoken digit by digit, except that objects dead ahead or astern (000, 180); on either beam (090, 270); or on either bow (045, 315) or quarter (135, 225) may be indicated as such. For example, a ship bearing 315 could be reported as being broad on the port bow, although the bearing itself can be used. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 68 Lookout Procedures Lookout Relative Bearings Relative bearings are expressed as an angular distance from the heading or bow of the vessel toward the object. 1. Relative bearings are the angular difference between an object and the ship's head. Relative bearings are usually measured clockwise thought 360 from the ship's heading. 1. A relative bearing may be expressed as a number of points from the bow as pictured below. Relative bearings may be measured from zero degrees (000) or Dead Ahead either clockwise (+) or counterclockwise (-) through 180 when designated as right/left or Port/Starboard. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 69 Lookout Procedures Lookout Relative Bearings An even more general indication of relative bearing may be given by such directions as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ahead () On the port () or starboard () bow On the port () or starboard () beam On the port () or starboard () quarter Astern () Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 70 Lookout Procedures Lookout Relative Bearings Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 71 Lookout Procedures Lookout Relative Bearings Ship's Bell The ship's bell is located on the forecastle head aft of the anchor windlass. The ship's bell is only used to make lookout reports when the sound powered telephone system (1-JV) is inoperative or when it is required by the Master and/or Watch Officer. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 72 Lookout Procedures Lookout Relative Bearings Ship's Bell When ship's bell is used for Lookout reports, they shall be as follows: 1. Object or vessel observed on the starboard side (). Watch Bell Report: One (1) ring or stroke of the ship's bell. 1. Object or vessel observed on the port side (). Watch Bell Report: Two (2) rings or strokes of the ship's bell. 1. Object or vessel observed dead ahead (). Watch Bell Report: Three (3) rings or strokes of the ship's bell. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 73 Lookout Procedures Estimating Distance A range for each contact reported would be invaluable, but estimating ranges over water is very difficult for the inexperienced lookout because distances are deceptive. Only with a lot of on-thejob (OTJ) experience will you become proficient in estimating ranges to contacts. As a rule of thumb, during clear visibility, large ships can be seen on the horizon at approximately 13-15 nm. The bow wave of a ship becomes clearly visible at about 3 nm. The only readily available reference point you can use when estimating ranges is the horizon. Knowing your height above the waterline will help you estimate ranges because the distance to the horizon varies with the height of the eye. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 74 Geographic Range = 1.17 height of eye + 1.17 height of object Lookout Procedures Estimating Distance At a height of 50 feet, for example, the distance to the horizon is about 8 miles; at a height of 100 feet, the distance is about 11-1/2 miles. These distance must be added to the height of the object. The actual range can be computed using the formula below. When a lighted object is first sighted on the horizon, you will observe a glow or what is referred to as the lume of the light. As you get closer to the light the actual light will break on the horizon. Knowing the luminous range of the light will assist in estimating the distance from the light using a technique called "Bobbing" the light. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 75 Geographic Range = 1.17 height of eye + 1.17 height of object Lookout Procedures Estimating Distance At a height of 50 feet, for example, the distance to the horizon is about 8 miles; at a height of 100 feet, the distance is about 11-1/2 miles. These distance must be added to the height of the object. The actual range can be computed using the formula below. BOBBING a light means to compute the range to the light then first observe the light from a higher height. When the light comes into view from the computed height the distance to the light is known. Practice estimating ranges to other vessels in company whose distances are known or can be easily determined. Until you become proficient at estimating distances, use such phrases as "close aboard," "on the horizon," "hull down," and so forth. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 76 Lookout Procedures Estimating Distance HULL UP --The ship is in from the horizon. HULL DOWN --The ship is over the horizon. Only a part of the superstructure can be seen, but the hull is not yet visible on the horizon. ON THE HORIZON --The waterline of the ship's hull appears to be on or near the horizon. CLOSE ABOARD --The contact reported is extremely close to own ship. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 77 Lookout Procedures Estimating Speed Speeds can be either easy or difficult to estimate, depending on how far away the contact is. Just as references are needed for ranges, speed references are also needed. Knowing your own ship's speed at all times can be a valuable aid in estimating other ship's speeds. A question to ask yourself is "How fast is the ship going in relation to me?" If your ship is steaming at 10 knots and is overtaking a ship on your starboard side, steaming a few knots slower than you are, it is safe to estimate the other ship's speed at about 5 to 8 knots. If a ship on your port side is overtaking to estimate that the other ship's speed is about 12 to 15 knots. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 78 Lookout Procedures Estimating Speed A readily visible aid in estimating speed is a ship's bow wave and stern wake. A bow wave is the wave of water the bow of a ship makes as it travels through the water. As a ship travels faster, the bow wave becomes larger (figure 13). A stern wake is the phosphorus trail that a ship leaves as it travels through the water. Unlike the bow wave, it is a calm, white colored water. As a ship travels fast, the stern wake increases in length; when the ship slows down, the stern wake decreases. The bridge does not expect accurate, to-the exact- knot speed reports from you. However, a good estimate is always valuable and can be used as a bridge. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 79 Lookout Procedures Estimating Speed Use the following terms in reporting speeds: High speed -25 kts or greater Medium-high speed-20 to 24 kts Medium speed - 15 to 19 kts Medium-low speed-10 to 14 kts Low speed-9 kts or less Dead in the water (DWI)-Not moving Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 80 Lookout Procedures Compass Headings The Cardinal Points of the Compass: North East South - West The Inter-cardinal Points of the Compass: Northeast - Southeast, Southwest - Northwest One point is equal to 11-1/4. There are 32 point of the compass. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 81 Lookout Procedures Compass Headings Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 82 Lookout Procedures Watch Bell Keeping Time Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 83 Steering Procedures Steering Procedures Standard maritime phraseology governing orders to the helmsman is required so that the conning officer's orders will be understood and promptly executed by the helmsman. The conning officer must give helm orders in a loud and distinct manner so that all concerned will hear and understand the helm orders. When changing course, the conning officer shall: Visually verify that the direction and path of the intended course change are clear and unobstructed. Use proper phraseology when giving rudder commands. Whenever a helm order is given, the conning officer should point in the direction of the desired course change. When ordering rudder, instruct the helmsman what the final course will be. Watch the helmsman turn the wheel. Make sure it is in the ordered direction. Verify the rudder position utilizing the Rudder Angle Indicator. Observe the gyro compass and rate of turn indicator to ascertain the direction and rate of turn. Insure that overswing is avoided. When swinging to a new course, bring the rudder amidships a number of degrees before reaching the desired course equal to one half the rudder angle being used. Example: When using 20 of rudder angle, order the rudder amidships 10 before the desired course. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 84 Steering Procedures Steering Procedures/Helm Orders The helmsman shall: Repeat Order: Repeat each helm order, word-for-word. Execute Order:Properly execute the helm order apply appropriate amount of rudder to actuate controllable turn rate approach ordered course, recognize turn rate check swing, apply counter rudder as necessary steady-up on ordered course Report Order: Report when the order and/or action has been completed. Command Conflicts: The master's orders are to be obeyed whenever conflict arises between members of the bridge team. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 85 Standard Orders to the Helm "RIGHT/(LEFT) DEGREES RUDDER" The order is normally followed by a new course to steer such as "Right 15 rudder, steady on course 025". The helmsman shall reply: "The rudder is right 15 rudder, steady on course 025, Sir". If no course is given, the helmsman shall reply: "The rudder is right 15, Sir, no new course given". "RIGHT/(LEFT) FULL RUDDER" Normally 30 rudder is applied in the direction ordered. The helmsman shall reply: "The rudder is right/(left) full rudder, Sir". "HARD RIGHT/(LEFT) RUDDER" Maximum rudder is applied in the direction ordered, normally about 35. The helmsman shall reply: "The rudder is hard right/(left) rudder, Sir". "INCREASE THE RUDDER TO RIGHT/(LEFT) DEGREES" Increase the rudder angle to the specified angle. For example, if the rudder is at right 10, the conning officer might give the order "Increase your rudder to right 20". The helmsman shall reply: "The rudder is increased to 20 right rudder, Sir". "EASE THE RUDDER TO RIGHT/(LEFT) DEGREES" Decrease the rudder angle to the specified angle. For example, if the rudder is at right 30, the conning officer might give the order, "Ease the rudder to right 15". The helmsman shall reply: "The rudder is eased to 15 right rudder, Sir". Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 86 Standard Orders to the helm "RUDDER AMIDSHIPS" Position the rudder on zero rudder angle. The helmsman shall reply: "The rudder is amidships, Sir". "STEADY" OR "STEADY AS YOU GO" Steer and report the course that the vessel is heading when the order is given. If the vessel is turning, the helmsman notes and reports the heading and brings the vessel back to that course. The helmsman should attempt to establish a fixed range ahead to steer by whenever possible. The helmsman shall reply: "Steady, steering course 000, checking 014, Sir". "SHIFT THE RUDDER" Move the rudder through amidships to the same angle in the opposite direction from where it is presently set. The helmsman shall reply: "Shift rudder, Sir". "MEET HER" Use the rudder as necessary to check, but not stop, the ship's swing. The helmsman shall reply: "Meet her, Sir". "NOTHING TO THE RIGHT/(LEFT)" OR "NOTHING TO THE RIGHT /(LEFT) OF DEGREES" Do not let the ship's head swing to the right or left of the course indicated. The helmsman shall reply: "Nothing to the right/(left) of course 000, Sir". "MIND YOUR RUDDER (HELM)" A warning to mind the helm and steer more precisely. The helmsman shall reply: "Mind the helm, Sir". "VERY WELL" Reply by the conning officer after receiving a report from the helmsman. The helmsman shall not respond to this reply. "BELAY THAT ORDER" OR "BELAY MY LAST" Any order from the conning officer to the helmsman to disregard the command given and continue as before. The helmsman shall reply: "Belay your last, Sir". Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 87 Steering Procedures/Compass Comparison Compare gyro compass repeaters in order to determine any discrepancies between the Master gyro heading, steering and miscellaneous gyro repeaters. Synchronize all gyro repeaters as required. Verify the Master gyro heading, steering repeater heading, and standard compass heading as well as the gyro course, gyro error, local variation, and heading deviation. Throughout the watch the gyro compass heading is to be compared with the standard magnetic compass at least once every hour by the OOW and COOW, every thirty (30) minutes by the Quartermaster, and every fifteen (15) minutes by the helmsman. The OOW, COOW and Quartermaster comparisons are to be entered into the compass record book. Whenever the course is changed, the new comparisons for the gyro, standard and steering compasses are to be noted in the compass record book and entered in the Deck Logbook as well as indicated on the Bridge Status Board. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 88 Steering Procedures/Compass Comparison Steering Procedures/Helm Watch Relief Prior to authorizing a change in helmsman the officer of the navigational watch will require both the relieving and relieved helmsman to report: The mode of operation (hand, auto-pilot, NFU) Steering unit in use (port or starboard steering unit) Vessel's heading: True course (T) Gyro course (pgc) Magnetic compass course (psc) The amount of helm carried to maintain a steady course, when appropriate The helm shall be relieved with no rudder on and under no circumstances will the wheel be relieved during a maneuver. Ensure that the helmsmen check the course recorder chart at the completion of their trick on the wheel whether steering by hand, autopilot or non-follow-up unit (NFU). Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 89 Steering Procedures/Compass Comparison USE OF AUTOMATIC PILOT The officer of the navigational watch must bear in mind the need to station the helmsman and to put the steering into manual control in sufficient time to allow any potentially hazardous situation to be dealt with in a safe manner. With a vessel operating in automatic steering, it is highly dangerous to allow a situation to develop to the point where the watch officer watch is without assistance and has to break the continuity of the lookout in order to take emergency action. The changeover from automatic to manual steering and vice-versa shall be made by, or under the supervision of, a responsible officer. At least once each watch, require a change in steering modes from hand steering mode to gyro mode in order to instill familiarization with the system and to be able to shift over quickly in an emergency situation. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 90 Draft Marks Procedures For Reading Draft Marks Draft marks are numbers marked on each side of the bow and stern of a vessel. Draft marks show the distance from the bottom of the keel to the waterline at that location. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 91 Draft Marks The draft numbers shown in figure below are 6 inches high and 6 inches apart. The bottom of each number shows the foot draft mark. The foot of each mark is a visible depth measurement. Draft Numbers Showing Foot Draft Draft Marks on Bow and Stern of Vessel Mark Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 92 Draft Marks Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 93 IALA ALPHA VS BRAVO IALA buoyage is divided into two regions made up of Region A and Region B. All navigable waters of the United States follow IALA Region B, except U.S. possessions west of the International Date Line and south of 10 degrees north latitude, which follow IALA Region A. Lateral aids to navigation in Region A vary from those located within Region B. Non-lateral aids to navigation are the same as those used in Region B. Appropriate nautical charts and publications should be consulted to determine whether the Region A or Region B marking schemes are in effect for a given area. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 94 Intro To Buoy Systems-Lateral Aids or Channel Markers Red colors, red lights, and even numbers indicate the right side of the channel as a boater enters from the open sea or heads upstream. Green colors, green lights and odd numbers indicate the left side of the channel as a boater proceeds from the open sea or heads upstream. Red Light Only Port Side Odd Numbered Aids Green Light Only Flashing (2) Flashing Occulting Quick Flashing ISO Occulting Quick Flashing ISO Flashing (2) Flashing Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 95 Day Marks These aids indicate an isolated danger which may be passed on all sides. They are erected on or moored on or near dangers, they should not be approached closely without special caution. Isolated Danger Marks Dayboards -- May Be Lettered White Light Only GW Bn RW Bn BW Bn The sole purpose of these diamond shaped dayboards is to help the vessel operator determine his/her location. They are like the "X's" on shopping mall maps "You Are Here." Appropriate nautical chart must be consulted to determine location. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 96 Bifurcation or preferred channel buoy Lateral Aids/Channel Markers Composite Group Flashing (2+1) White Light Only Morse Code Red/Right/Return Mo(A) Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 97 Special Purpose Buoys Bells and gongs are sounds which are associated with some buoys. All sounds are mechanically produced by wave motion. The ringing of a bell can be heard with minimal wave motion, gongs however require rough seas to generate the signal. Fixed Flashing These aids are not intended to assist in navigation, but rather to alert the vessel operator to a special feature or area (anchoring, traffic separation, fish net area, cable or pipeline, military exercise areas, jetties, ect.) Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 98 IALA B Channel Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 99 Intercardinal Marks Cones point to black bandLights are like face of clock. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 100 Characteristics of Lights Flashing - Fl: The period of light is shorter than the period of darkness. Occulting- Occ: The period of darkness is shorter than the period of light. Alternating - Alt: Two different lights alternate. Isophase - Iso: Lights that are on and off for equal intervals Fixed Light - F: The light is steady and not flashing. Morse Code - Mo(A): The characteristics of the light is the Morse Code for the letter "A" (quick flash and a long flash) Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 101 Types of Clouds-High Altitude Cirrus Clouds thin and wispy The most common form of high-level clouds are thin and often wispy cirrus clouds. Typically found at heights greater than 20,000 feet (6,000 meters), cirrus clouds are composed of ice crystals that originate from the freezing of supercooled water droplets. Cirrus generally occur in fair weather and point in the direction of air movement at their elevation. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 102 Middle Clouds Altostratus-Altocumulus The bases of mid-level clouds typically appear between 6,500 to 20,000 feet (2,000 to 6,000 meters). Because of their lower altitudes, they are composed primarily of water droplets, however, they can also be composed of ice crystals when temperatures are cold enough. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 103 Low Clouds Stratus-Stratocumulus-Nimbostratus Low clouds are mostly composed of water droplets since their bases generally lie below 6,500 feet (2,000 meters). However, when temperatures are cold enough, these clouds may also contain ice particles and snow. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 104 Cloud Meanings Cirrus- In thick patches indicate showery weather. Shaped like hooks or commas indicate a warm front with steady rain, especially if followed by cirrostratus. Cirrocumulus-Also called mackerel sky. Indicates good weather along the US West coast and New England, bad weather in Med. Altostratus-most reliable indicator of storm development at sea. Indicates warm air riding up over cold air. Altocumulous-in advance of warm front and rain/snow. Nimbostratus-low, dark,amorphous, and uniform. Indicate heavy precipitation and high winds following in short order. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 105 Cloud Meanings Stratus-Maybe light drizzle or fog. Stratocumulus-clearing or fair weather. Cumulus-Fair weather clouds. Cumulonimbus-Thunderheads-heavy lightning, hail, and generally bad weather. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 106 Cloud Levels-Classes-Meanings Main-Ideas: 1. High Clouds - Cirrus, Cirrostratus, and Cirrocumulus 2. Middle Clouds - Altostratus, Altocumulus 3. Low Clouds - Stratus, Statocumulus, Nimbostratus 4. Clouds with vertical development - Cumulus, Cumulonimbus 5. Other clouds which don't fit in a classification category - contrail, mammatus, lenticular, noctilucent, and nacreous. Classification of Clouds Clouds are classified using the Latin system developed by Luke Howard, an English naturalist, who described clouds as they would appear to a ground observer. He classified four basic types of clouds: Stratus (Latin for "layer") - a sheet-like cloud Cumulus ("heap") - a puffy cloud Cirrus ("curl of hair") - a wispy cloud Nimbus ("violent rain") - a rain cloud Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 107 Cirrus Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 108 Cirrocumulus Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 109 Cirrostratus Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 110 Altocumulus Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 111 Altostratus Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 112 Stratus Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 113 Stratocumulus Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 114 Nimbostratus Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 115 Cumulus Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 116 Cumulonimbus Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 117 Mammatus Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 118 Sea State Chart Force 0: Wind speed less than 1 knot, Sea: Like a mirror Force 1: Wind speed 1-3 knots, Sea: Wave height 0.1 m; Ripples with appearance of scales 119 Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) Sea State Chart Force 2: Wind speeds 4-6 knots, Sea: Wave ht. 0.2-0.3 m; Small wavelets, crests of glassy appearance, not breaking Force 3: Wind speeds 7-10 knots, Sea: Wave ht. 0.6-1.0 m; Large wavelets, crests begin to break, scattered white caps. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 120 Sea State Chart Force 4: Wind speeds 11-17 knots, Sea: Wave ht. 1.0-1.5 m; Small waves becoming longer, numerous white caps. Force 5: Wind speeds 17-21 knots, Sea: Wave ht. 2.0-2.5 m; Moderate waves, taking longer form, many white caps, some spray. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 121 Sea State Chart Force 6: Wind speeds 22-27 knots, Sea: Wave ht. 3-4 m; Larger waves forming, white caps everywhere, more spray. Force 7: Wind speeds 28-33 knots, Sea: Wave ht. 4.0-5.5 m; Sea heaps up, white foam from breaking waves begins to be blown in streaks in direction of wind. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) 122 Sea State Chart Force 8: Wind speeds 33-40 knots, Sea: Wave ht. 5.5-7.5 m; Moderately high waves of greater length, edges of crests begin to break into spindrift, foam is blown in well marked streaks. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) Force 9: Wind speeds 41-47 knots, Sea: Wave ht. 7-10 m; High waves, sea begins to roll, dense streaks of foam along wind direction, spray may reduce visibility. 123 Sea State Chart Force 10: Wind speeds 48-55 knots, Sea: Wave ht. 9-12.5 m; Very high waves with overhanging crests, sea takes white appearance as foam is blown invery dense streaks, rolling is heavy and shocklike, visibility is reduced. Capt. Murphy/Vessel Familiarization & Basic Safety Training (MT1111) Force 11: Wind speeds 56-63 knots, Sea: Wave ht. 11.5-16 m; Exceptionally high waves sea covered with white foam patches, visibility still more reduced. 124 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course VESSEL FAM MT-1111-22 taught by Professor Murphy during the Spring '08 term at Mass Maritime.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online