MENTAL RETARDATION AND CEREBRAL PALSYSupervised by : dr. Tariq Khudhair Prepared by : Ayat Ayad Noor Ahmed
DEFINITIONMental retardation refer to significantly sub average general intellectual functioning resulting in or associated with concurrent impairments in adaptive behaviour and manifested during the developmental period ,before the age of 18.“A condition where intelligence is low and sub average learning and low performance.” An arrested or incomplete development of mind, People with intellectual disabilities can learn new skills, but they learn them more slowly. 2
Incidence and prevalence✘1% to 3 % of the world population is estimated to be mentally retarded.✘1.5 times more common among boys than girls.✘Mortality is high in severe or profound mentally retardation due to associated physical condition. ✘Common in the age group of 2-3 years. Peak in 10 -12 years age.3
✘Perinatal factors(Birth asphyxia , Prolonged or difficult birth , Prematurity , Kernicterus , Instrumental delivery (resulting in head injury, intraventricular hemorrhage) )✘Postnatal factor(Infections , Encephalitis ,Measles ,Meningitis , Septicaemia , Accidents Lead poisoning ) ✘Environmental and socio cultural (Cultural deprivation ,Low socio-economic status ,Inadequate caretakers , Child abuse ) ✘None of the above. In two-thirds of all children who have intellectual disability, the cause is unknown.6
Intelligence quotient level ( IQ)✘The average IQ is 100, with the majority of people scoring between 85 and 115. A person is considered intellectually disabled if they have an IQ of less than 70 to 75.✘In normal child CA is equal to MA MENTAL AGE✘IQ = ------------------------------ X 100 CHRONOLOGICAL AGE 7
✘Mild Retardation (IQ- 50-70) ( Educable)✘commonest type✘accounting for 85-90% of all cases.