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PSY 704 Notes for Bandura Lecture.docx - CASE...

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CASE CONCEPTUALIZATIONStrictly ConfidentialFrom (Cervone)To answer the what, how, and why questions, the personality psychologistaddresses four distinct topics:(1) personality structure—the basic units or building blocks of personality; stable andenduring aspects of personality; comparable to parts of the body or to concepts such asatom or molecules in physics(2) personality process—the dynamic aspects of personality, including motives,(3) growth and development—how we develop into the unique person each of us is, and(4) psychopathology and behavior change—how people change and why they sometimesresist change or are unable to change.From (Ryckman)Assumptions of SCTTriadic Reciprocal Determinism (or causation)From (Cervone)SCT vs Other TheoriesPsychoanalysts overemphasize unconscious forces and early childhood experienceoSct emphasizes conscious self-reflection and argue that critical developmentalprocesses occur not only in early childhood but throughout the life courseThe core premise of trait theory “personality can be understood in terms of overall, averagetendencies” is questionableoSCT believes that personality is reveled in both average levels of behavior andpatterns of variability in action.oAre you shy with some people but outgoing with others? Motivated on some tasksbut lazy on others? Social-cognitive theory sees such variability as revealing ofpersonality structure (Mischel & Shoda, 2008).Evolutionary psychology is inadequate?oVast changes in human social life observed from one historical period toanother not adequately explained by evolutionary psychologyoA century ago, evolutionary psychologists might have explained why women areevolutionarily predisposed to stay at home rather than entering the workforce. Nowthat women have entered the workforce in massive numbers, such an explanationmakes little sense.Behaviorist argument that environmental stimuli controls behavior is rejectedoPeople have capacity for self controloCognitive abilities enable people to shape the course of their owndevelopmentoThese capabilities also allow people to learn new patterns of behavior byobservation or modeling even in the absence of reinforcementPersonality Structures(emphasized in SCT)Competencies and skillsExpectancies and beliefsBehavioral standardsPersonal goalsThese four personality variables refer to four distinct classes of cognition; they thus can be seenas distinct subsystems within the overall system of personality. Any given person may havedifferent skills, beliefs, standards, and goals in different situations. Thus, behavior naturally variesacross situations in a meaningful manner that reflects the individual’s personality characteristics.From (Feist)Related Research(The only new portion in the 9thedition)Moral disengagement and bullying
oMoral disengagement – after doing something bad, we convince ourselves that the

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