2Group DevelopmentWhen developing teams, a five-stage group-development model called the TuckmanLadder is referenced most often. The model, first proposed by the educator Bruce Tuckman, isconsisted of five distinct stages all teams go through: forming, storming, norming, performing,and adjourning. Each stage is characterized as the following:Forming: Characterized by a great deal of uncertainty about the group’s purpose,structure, and leadership. Not until these issues are sorted out members can thinkof themselves as part of the team and move on to the next stage.Storming: Characterized by intragroup conflict. Members accept the existence ofthe group but resist the constraints it imposes on individuality. There is conflictover who will control the group. When this stage is complete, there will be arelatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group.Norming: Characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness. There is now astrong sense of group identity and camaraderie. This stage is complete when thegroup structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set ofexpectations of what defines correct member behavior.Performing: Characterized by fully functional group. The group structure at thispoint is fully functional and accepted. Group energy has moved from getting toknow and understand each other to performing the task at hand.
3Adjourning: Characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than taskperformance. The group is preparing to disband. Some members are upbeat,basking in the group’s accomplishments. Others may be depressed over the loss ofcamaraderie and friendships gained during the work group’s life. (Robbins &Judge, The Five-Stage Model, 2012)Currently, the development team is stuck in the forming stage, as the stakeholderorganizations involved in the work are still having debate over the personnel to select for theteam. While in the best scenario this team focusing on executive development of theexperimental after-school program will be comprised of members represent all stakeholder