(VMA101E) History of Media Arts 19 th Century Invention - 1. Telegraph o 1. Samuel F. B. Morse o 2. Invention, 1844 o 3. Ideological Use (Manifest Destiny) 4. Economic Use Samuel Morse (The American Leonardo) o Wanted to make a lot of money so he could paint the rest of his life. o Found interest in magnetism and sound…wanted to find a way to take the science and use it for information o Created code in a series of electromagnetic pulses over wire that could be deciphered into letters Morse Code o Alfred Veil – receiving key (series of clicks) o Morse eventually goes to U.S Gov. and receives 30K grant which allows him to string wires from D.C to Baltimore o May 24, 1844 - lines are ready for transmission “What Hath God Wrought?” – 1 st message o Morse tries to get patent for transmitter, but Gov. isn’t interested o Telegraph ends up being crucial to “Manifest Destiny” expansion West o Telegraph + Railroad = West 1858 – First Trans-Atlantic cable completed - could now communicate with Europe, although initial try was flawed Importance of Telegraph Used mainly for commerce and information o Marks beginning of distance journalism (non-local stories and information) o Becomes Associated Press (AP) o 1860s and 1870s, people begin complaining about too much info in papers Example of Invention as Synthesis Example of Ideology and /economics shaping a technology Establishes a pattern of Media Ownership and Control o Monopolies, Trusts, Corporate Control, and weak Gov. regulation 2. Telephone 1. Alexander Graham Bell - Originally created as a method of comm. for hard of hearing - 1885 AT&T created, monopolized telephone industry thru 1890 when MCI came along 3. Phonograph - Thomas Edison Edison Speaking Phonograph Co. – 1878
- Originally Edison wanted to create it for info, but soon shifted toward the entertainment/personal use of the day - Mid to late 1890s, phonographs were sold at local stores in towns across America - Targeted to middle and upper class families - Grahmaphone – prototype record player eventually makes phonograph obsolete 4. Wireless (Radio) I. Early Development - J.C Maxwell, Heinrich Hertz II. Guglielmo Marconi A. Background Son of Italian Count and heiress to Jamison Whiskey Fortune Became interested in Hertzian waves at an early age B. Marconi in England - Along with his mother, Marconi travels to England to try to patent his wireless telegraphy device - 1897 – Patent Received **** - After setting up system in England, Marconi comes to America to get patent in 1899, but U.S didn’t like his system C. Marconi in U.S - Begins using wireless for corporations and businesses throughout U.S 1. Telecommunications – Transmission and reception of info by electromagnetic means over radio waves or by wire 2. Broadcasting – Transmission of radio or TV signals intended for general public reception 3. Telephony (voice) vs. Telegraphy (coded) Development of Movies Result of 3 innovations 1. Magic Lanterns - People would go to local lecture hall to watch these very elaborate magic lantern shows 2. Motion Picture Toys - Persistence of vision
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- Spring '08
- Guglielmo Marconi, Thomas Edison Edison, Motion Picture Patents