PracticeExam3Geology1

PracticeExam3Geology1 - (15",; 3:, a , if} TESt 3...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–9. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 2
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 4
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 8
Background image of page 9
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: (15",; 3:, a , if} TESt 3 Geomgy 101 Fan 2006 'Insmmmr: Dr‘ Andrew I{ill-ash Mark answers on test first, transfer answers to scantron after finishing test RETURN TEST and SCANTRON (with UIN) DO NOT put UlN on this test , which of the following best represents the sequence of mineral 1) precipitation, first to precipitate is on the left A) halite, gypsum, calcite B) gypsum, calcite, halite C) Halite, gypsum, anhydrite, calcite, bittern salts D) calcite, gypsum, halite E) halite then calcite (no others precipitate) 2) Which one of the following is a dehydration reaction? A) Pyroxene + water —> Amphibole B) Calcite —> Aragonite C) Anhydrite + water —> Gypsum D) Amphibole —> Pyroxene + water 2) E) Potassium Feldspar + water + H+ —> Si02 + K1L + Clay 3) Which of the following would retain the most detailed impressions of fossilized organisms? 3) A) gravel and sand stream deposits laid down during flash floods B) an ancient, rainforest Iateritic soil buried by basalt lava flows C) very fine—grained volcanic ash deposited in an ancient lake D) quartz-rich sand deposited in a shallow, beachfront environment 4) ‘Which one of the following best describes detrital or elastic sedimentary rocks? A) Formed only by bigeochemical weathering processes B) Composed of significant amounts of humus, air and water, plus the regolith. C) Composed of particles that have been transported to the site of deposition. D) Composed of particles only from cataclastites E) Composed of particles that precipitate from waters in lakes or seawater. 5) Which one of the following statements is false about sedimentary rocks? A) most are either limestones, sandstones, or mud rocks (silts and shales) B) they contain most of the Earth's energy resources used by man today C) they are the most abundant rock type (by volume) in the crust of the Earth D) they are deposited at or near the earth's surface E) they are the most common rock type exposed on the surface of the Earth 6) Nonclastic textures are common in which of the f0 A) boulder breccias C) limestones flowing sedimentary rocks? 6) B) cherty conglomerates D) sandstones 7) Den-ital sedimentary rocks are classified (named) based on the . A) colors of the cementing minerals B) grain sizes of the den-ital particles C) degree of compaction and lithification D) compositions of soluble minerals 7) 8) Which of the follow best represents a marine REGRESSION in the field? A) shale overlain by sandstone overlain by arkose —'——— B) limestone overlain by shale overlain by sandstone C) sandstone overlain by conglomerate overlain by breccia D) sandstone overlain by shale overlain by limestone 9) Which of the following sedimentary rocks would you expect to have originally been deposited 9) in a low—energy environment? I A) cross—bedded sandstone B) mudstone C) conglomerate D) limestone made of broken coquina shells E) tickstonite schist 10) Which one of the following 15 not a chemical sedunentary rock or evaporite? 10) A) bedded gypsum B) cherty dolostone C) shale D) oolitic limestone 11) In which setting would regional metamorphism be most likely? 11) A) at shallow depths along major transform faults in the continental crust B) at shallow depths below an oceanic ridge or rift zone C) at shallow depths beneath the seafloor where water pressures are immense D) at great depths in the crust where two continents are colliding 12) A) heat from grinding and shearing on faults B) heat from a nearby magma body C) deep burial and heat from the Earth's interior D) heat from the spontaneous decomposition of Inicas and feldspars 13) In which setting would burial metamorphism be most likely? A) At very shallow depths near a lar B) along passive continental mar Gulf of Mexico) 13) ge igneous intrusion like the Sierra Nevada batholith gins where sediments are rapidly accumulating (like the D) at great depths in the crust where oceanic lithosphere is subducting E) at intermediate depths along major transform faults in the continental crust 14) Which of the following statements best characterizes the diffe pressure and differential stress? A) differential stress is like water pressure and is the same in all directions; pressure is directed (magnitude varies with direction) B) confining pressure is due to the Weight of the overlying rocks and differential stress is caused by water pressure from dehydration reactions. C) confining pressure is due only to water and differential stress is due only to the weight of the overlying rocks D) confining pressure is like water pressure and is the same in all directions; differential stress is directed (magnitude varies with direction) rences between confining 14) confining 15) Which of the following statements best describes why some metamorphic rocks are foliated? A) they recrystallized at high temperatures and hydrostatic pressures B) they recrystallized when there was a differental stress on the rocks. C) they recrystallized due to contact metamorphism D) they crystallized during burial metamorphism like happens at great depths along the Gulf of Mexico 16) In central Mongolia, we found a east-west trending zone of high temperature, low pressure metamorphic rocks. Just to the south of this zone is a parallel zone of high pressure, low temperature metamorphic rocks. Which of the following is the best interpretation of the formation of these rocks. A) Formed at a northward dipping subduction zone B) Formed at a westward dipping subduction zone C) Formed at a eastward dipping subduction zone D) Formed at a southward dipping subduction zone B) Formed at a continental rift zone by contact metamorphism 17) Which of the following best describes the conditions of contact metamorphism? A) Heat is generated by shearing and mechanical movements along faults. B) Pressures are fairly low, the rock is in the upper part of the crust, and heat is supplied from a nearby magma body. C) Pressures are very high, the rock is dee Earth's internal heat. D) Depths are fairly shallow, but temperatures and pressures are so high that the rocks begin to partially melt. ply buried, and temperatures are raised by the 18) How many of the following about metamorphism are correct? 1. Mineral recrystallize to try to reach equilibrium 2. Some of the Pre Cambrian rocks ex sedimentary rocks. 3.Most contact metamorphism takes normal. posed in the Grand Canyon are metamorphosed place where the geothermal gradient is higher than seawater reacts with basaltic rocks at oceanic ridges? A) seawater evolves from a fluid rich in metals such as F fluid rich in Na, Cl, and Mg B) seawater evolves from a basic, oxygenated fluid rich in Na, reducing fluid rich in metals such as Fe, Mn, and Cu. C) seawater evolves from an acidic, reducing fluid to a basic, metals suchas Fe, Mn, and Cu. D) seawater changes to fresh water and chemosynthetic bacteria at high temperatures. E) the chemistry changes very little as the water reacts with the rock. e, Mn, and Cu to a basic, oxygenated Cl, and Mg to an acidic, oxygenated fluid rich in 15) 16) 17) 18) —.....___ ——._ 19) 20) Amphibolite is a foliated metamorphic rock composed principally of hornblende and 20) plagioclase. How does it form? _"—__ A) by regional metamorphism of volcanic rocks such as andesite and basalt B) by contact metamorphism of sandstone along the contact with a granitic batholith C) by the impact of an asteroid on interbedded sandstone and shale D) by gouging and crushing of limestone along a fault 21) Which of the following best describes the age of Precambrian—Cambrian boundary? 21) A) 248 million years B) 65 million years C) 540 million years D) 15 billion years E) 4.5 billion years 22) Which one of the following statements best describes the decay of 191(40 to 18Ar40? 22) A) decays by nuclear capture of one electron B) decays by loss on one electron C) decays by emission of one beta particle D) decays by capture of one neutron E) decays byloss of one alpha particle 23) With regard to the movie we saw about submarine h following statements is FALSE? A) the chemosynthetic bacteria feed primarily off of hydrogen sulfide in the hot water. B) the tube worms had chemosynthetic bacteria inside their bodies C) the biological communities associated with the hots bacteria to fish, squid, and octopuses D) Many scientists believe that hot springs like these may be similar to those in which primative life began about 4 billion years ago. E) During most of the expedition, the seas were quite calm. ydrothermal processes, which one of the 23) prings are quite diverse ranging from 24) Assume that man's recorded history can be stretched back to 4600 years before the present. 24) This is approximately what fraction of geologic time? A) one hundred—thousandth B) one billionth C) one ten—thousandth D) one millionth 25) An unconformity is a . 25) A) fault or fracture with older rocks above and younger rocks below B) fault or fracture with younger strata above and older strata below C) surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older rocks below D) surface of erosion with older strata above and younger strata below 26) Which of the following is an essential characteristic of an index fossil? A) the fossils occur in deep~water marine sediments, sunlit, surface layer of the ocean B) the organism lived only in specific environments such as beaches or estuaries C) the fossils are exceptionally abundant and well preserved D) the organism only lived for a short period of geologic time 26) but the organism actually lived in the 27) What is the source of natural carbon—14? A) nuclear fission of the heavy, radioactive elements uranium and thorium B) cosmic ray collisions and neutron—capture involving atmospheric nitrogen C) leakage of radioactive gases from the liquid, outer core D) fusion of hydrogen and helium in the Sun and eruption of solar flares 28) With regard to the movie we saw about submarine hydrothermal processes, which one of the following statements is FALSE? A) The water coming out of the hot springs was at temperatures near 60001:, but it does not boil because of the high pressure. B) A wide variety of life forms are associated with submarine hot springs. C) The chimneys had names like Godzilla, Fang and Finn D) The basis of the food chain is photosynthesizing algae that can live at high temperatures. E) A modified "chain saw" was used to cut and weaken most of the chimneys before being lifted up to the surface. 29) Which one of the following statements best describes what a K—Ar "age" represents? A) time since the material was last removed from equilibrium with the atmosphere B) time since the once—living plant or animal died C) time since the last atom of K went through the process of alpha particle loss. D) the age is always about 10 half lives E) time since the rock last cooled through its retention temperature for Ar 30) Why are quartz, calcite and clay minerals the most common minerals in sedimentary rocks? A) They are thermodynamically unstable under conditions at or near the surface of the Earth. B) They have been together since birth and enjoy each other's company. C) They are all hydrous phases containing water, which is necessary for life at the surface. D) They are thermodynamically stable under conditions at or near the surface of the Earth. E) They are all carbonates, which is the main rock in calcite. 31) Which one of the following is the best geologic definition of a sand? A) Has grains that are greater than 2 mm. B) Has grains that are less that 1/16 mm. C) Must have well rounded grains of quartz that are between 2 mm and 1/ 16 mm. D) Must feel good between your toes E) Has grains that are between 2 mm and 1/16 mm. 32) Which of the following sedimentary features can each be used to determine paleocurrent directions? Choose the best answer. A) fossils and mud cracks B) ripple marks and cross bedding C) grain size and graded bedding D) mud cracks and angularity of grains 33) Which one of the following best describes why the most abundant rocks at the Earth' 5 surface are sedimentary? B) Most are made of minerals that are thermodynamically stable at surface conditions C) They form at the Earth's surface, often as a result of Weathering , erosion and deposition. D) all of the above are true 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) Which of the following BEST describes metamorphism? 34) A) partial melting of a rock without totally melting it creates a metamorphic rock B) recrystallization of a rock Without melting C) Evaporation processes that result in the formation of limestone, gypsum and halite D) compaction and cementation of detritial sedimentary particles E) partial melting of peridotite to produce basaltic lava 35) Which of the following statements best characterizes metamorphism at mid ocean ridges? 35) A) mostly eclogite facies metamorphism at very low temperatures and pressures B) takes place along a very low geothermal gradient producing blueschist facies metamorphism C) primarily hydrothermal metamorphism involving seawater and a high geothermal gradient D) mostly granulite facies metamorphism at very high temperatures and pressures. 36) Which of the following best characterizes the boundary between the Cambrian Tapeats 36) sandstone which lies unconformably on the Vishnu Schist in the Grand Canyon A) angular unconformity B) nonconformity C) disconfonnity 37) The ratio of parent to daughter isotopes in a radioactive decay process is 0.20. How many 37) half—lives have elapsed since the material was 100% parent atoms? A) between I and 2 B) less than I C) more than 3 D) between 2 and 3 38) Which one of the following best describes the sedimentary rocks of the great state of Texas? 38) A) From East Texas to extreme south Texas, Tertiary sedimentary rocks dominate representing river, coastal and shallow marine deposition B) In general, they get older moving from NW to SE. C) The hill country area of central Texas is composed mostly of Jurassic wmdblown sandstones representing a desert environment of deposition. D) all of the above are true 39) Which one of the following statements is true? 39) A) The law of superposition applies to all types of rocks B) A dike is always older than the rock it intrudes C) Older features cut across younger features D) In general, in undeformed sedimentary rocks, older rocks are overlain by younger rocks 40) Assmming that 92U235 decays to a stable daughter by the loss of 6 alpha particles and 5 beta 40) particles. Which one of the following best describes the atomic Weight and atomic number of this stable daughter? A) atomic weight = 206 atomic number = 82 B) atomic weight = 207 atomic number = 74 C) atomic weight = 207 atomic number = 82 D) atomic weight = 82 atomic number = 206 E) atomic weight = 211 atomic number = 85 41) Which of the following forms at the highest grade of regional metamorphism? 41) A) phyllite B) schist C) gneiss D) slate 42) Which one of the following best describes what happens to sediment particles as they are transported greater and greater distances in a river? A) The grains get more angular as they break into smaller pieces. B) They get smaller and more rounded C) Nothing much happens to the grains as they are transported from the mountains to the oceans; however, once they reach the ocean, the salt water causes them to swell. D) The grains get slightly larger as they bounce along the bottom and adhere to other grains E) They get rounder and larger as they roll along the bottom. A) principle of cross correlation B) law of correlative indexing C) law of fossil regression D) principle of fauna] (or fossil) succession 4-4) The rock on the top of Mt. Everest is a shallow marine limestone deposited 200 million years ago. What does this tell us about the geologic history of the Himalayas? A) “Who cares what happened 200 million years ago? B) 200 million years ago, the Himalayas did not exist. C) 200 million years ago, the ocean level was much hi could be deposited at the top of the mountains D) 200 million years ago, the Himalayas were located in the southern hemisphere under reversed magnetic polarity. E) 200 million years ago, there was a high gher than it is today so that limestone-s —alltitude lake at the top of the Himalayas. 45) When a radioactive isotope decays by electron capture, the electron A) makes the parent isotope into an ion with a charge of negative one B) combines with a neutron in the nucleus, raisin by one C) makes the daughter isotope into an ion with a charge of positive one D) combines with a proton in the nucleus, decreasing the atomic number by one E) combines with another electron in the outer shell giving it a charge of minus one g the mass number of the daughter isotope 46) Which of the following describes radioactive decay A) The daughter isotope has an atomic number 0 two less. B) The mass number of the daughter isoto have the same atomic number. C) The daughter isotope has an atomic number four Iess. D) The atomic number of the dau are the same. by beta particle emission? me less than the parent and a mass number pe is one more than the parent and both isotopes two less than the parent and a mass number ghter isotope is one more than the parent; the mass numbers remain today? A) between one-fourth and one—eighth B) between one—half and one—fourth C) more than one-half D) between one—half and one—third 44) 45) 46) —-—....._. ——....._ 48) Which one of the following best describes the sequence of events to produce a nonconformity? 48) A) deposition, tilting, erosion, deposition B) deposition, erosion, deposition C) deposition, igneous intrusion, uplift and erosion, deposition D) deposition, folding, faulting, erosion, faulting, erosion, deposition, erosion 49) Use the diagram below to determine which one of the foIlowing statements is FALSE. 49) A) Sandstone is older that the Conglomerate and the Conglomerate is older than Fault B B) Fault B is older than the sill but younger than the Batholith C) Fault A happened before the deposition of the Conglomerate but after the deposition of the Sandstone D) Dike A is younger than Batholith 50) On the diagram below, which one of the lines is most 1i1<ely a dehydration reaction? 50) A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 5 P Answer Key Testname: 101TEST3FALLO6 NH VV‘H—f ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course GEOL 101 taught by Professor Olinsky during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.

Page1 / 9

PracticeExam3Geology1 - (15",; 3:, a , if} TESt 3...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 9. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online