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Chapters 40(allsects.) & 47(sects.1-4)

Chapters 40(allsects.) & 47(sects.1-4) - Chapter 40...

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Chapter 40 Notes/Important Concepts SECTION 1 – ORGANIZATION OF ANIMAL BODIES Tissues – specialized cells of a given type often cluster together to form tissues o Muscle o Nervous o Epithelial o Connective Muscle tissues: Specialized to contract – movement, pressure on a fluid-filled cavity, decrease diameter of a tube o Skeletal Attached to bones in vertebrates/exoskeleton in invertebrates Under voluntary control – locomotion, facial expressions o Smooth Surround hollow tubes/cavities – contractions can propel contents of organs Ex: stomach/bladder Also forms part of small blood vessels & airway tubes (bronchioles) involuntary o Cardiac Physical & electrical connections enable contractions Only in heart muscle Nervous tissues: initiate & conduct electrical signals from one part of an animal’s body to another o 2 microns to 2 meters in length o Critical means of controlling many diverse activities of body cells Epithelial tissues: sheets of densely packed cells that cover the body or individual organs or line the walls of various cavities inside the body
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o The cells are specialized to protect structures & secrete/absorb ions/organic molecules o Ex: sweat glands form from ep cells o The cells rest on an extracellular matrix called the basal lamina/basement membrane o Function as selective barriers Connective tissues: connect, surround, anchor, and support the structures of an animal’s body. o Blood, adipose tissue, bone, cartilage, loose connective tissue, & dense connective tissue o Form the extracellular matrix around cells by secreting a mix of fibrous proteins and carbs o Matrix serves several general functions: 1. Provides a scaffold to which cells attach 2. Protects & cushions parts of the body 3. Provides mechanical strength 4. Transmits info to the cells that help regulate their activity, migration, growth, and differentiation o Proteins of this matrix consist of insoluble fibrous proteins (collagen) and rubber band-like protein (elastin) – just called fibers sometimes Organ – composed of 2+ kinds of tissues arranged in various proportions & patterns, such as sheets, tubes, layers, bundles, or strips o (see example of stomach, pg. 851) Organ system – diff organs work together to perform an overall function o (stomach is part of digestive system) o (see table 40.1) o The spatial arrangement of organs into organ systems is part of an overall body plan in all animals – each develop along specific times and locations – along the anteroposterior body axis – this is homologous in all animals ( HOMEOTIC GENES )
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Hox genes are responsible for bodily organization in vertebrates , and there are similar genes (homologous genes) for invertebrates as well BODY FLUIDS Water transport All animal bodies are composed primarily of water Most of the water is contained within the intracellular fluid inside its cells; the rest is found in the extracellular fluid (composed of fluid part of the blood [plasma] & spaces
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