BioNotes2 - Notes 4 5 Sunday 3:59 PM Chapter 4"General...

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Notes §4, 5 Sunday, September 16, 2007 3:59 PM Chapter 4 "General Features of Cells" The Proteome Determines the Characteristics of a Cell 1. How does a single organism produce different types of cells? o Identical DNA in different cells but different proteomes (different proteins in each cell) o The proteome of a cell determines the structure and function o Gene regulates amount of protein, amino acid sequence of a particular protein & protein modification can influence a cell's proteome A Tour of the Cell 2. Cytoplasm o Everything inside plasma membrane Cytosol, endomembrane system & semiautonomous organelles 3. Cytosol o Region of a eukaryotic cell outside cell organelles inside the plasma membrane o Cytosol is the Site of Many Metabolic Processes Metabolism Enzymatic reactions Translation Process of polypeptide synthesis At ribosomes 4. Cytoskeleton o Network of three different types of protein filaments: Actin filaments Aka microfilaments Microtubules Dynamic instability Centrosome or microtubule-organizing center in animals Intermediate filaments More stable than microtubule & actin filaments *************Table 4.1**************** 5. Motor proteins o Proteins that use ATP as a source of energy for movement o 3 domains: head, hinge, & tail o Walking analogy Ground is cytoskeleton filament, your leg is the head of the motor protein, hip is the hinge. 6. Muscles are actin- & myosin-based machines o Muscle sacromere o Myosin is an actin "motor" o Myosin makes thick filaments in muscle
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o Myosin hydrolyzes ATP, pulls on the F-actin filaments to contract muscle o Myosin & actin slide past each other as contraction occurs 7. Flagella & cilia (********Fig. 4.12*********) o 250 µm in diameter o Made of 9 outer doublet microtubules: special double microtubules o 2 central microtubules o Very complex o ≈ 300 proteins! o Dynein arms link doublets together, push tipward & drive the bending of the cilium 8. Endomembrane system o Network of membranes enclosing the nucleus, ER, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, & vacuoles. o Also includes plasma membrane o May be directly connected to each other or pass materials via vesicles 9. Nuclear envelope o Double membrane structure enclosing nucleus o Outer membrane of nuclear envelope is continuous w/ ER o Nuclear pores o Materials within the nucleus are not part of the endomembrane system 10. Nucleus o Chromosomes DNA & protein Chromatin o Primary function - protection, organization, & expression of genetic material o Ribosome assembly in the nucleus 11. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) o Network of membranes that form flattened, fluid filled tubules or cisternae o ER membrane encloses the ER lumen *ER types* Rough ER Studded with ribosomes Protein synthesis & sorting Smooth ER Lacks ribosomes Detox., carbohydrate metabolism, calcium balance, synthesis, &
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