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BioNotes2 - Notes 4 5 Sunday 3:59 PM Chapter 4"General...

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Notes §4, 5 Sunday, September 16, 2007 3:59 PM Chapter 4 "General Features of Cells" The Proteome Determines the Characteristics of a Cell 1. How does a single organism produce different types of cells? o Identical DNA in different cells but different proteomes (different proteins in each cell) o The proteome of a cell determines the structure and function o Gene regulates amount of protein, amino acid sequence of a particular protein & protein modification can influence a cell's proteome A Tour of the Cell 2. Cytoplasm o Everything inside plasma membrane 3. Cytosol o Region of a eukaryotic cell outside cell organelles inside the plasma membrane o Cytosol is the Site of Many Metabolic Processes Metabolism Enzymatic reactions Translation Process of polypeptide synthesis At ribosomes 4. Cytoskeleton o Network of three different types of protein filaments: Actin filaments Aka microfilaments Microtubules Dynamic instability Centrosome or microtubule-organizing center in animals Intermediate filaments *************Table 4.1**************** 5. Motor proteins o Proteins that use ATP as a source of energy for movement o o Walking analogy Ground is cytoskeleton filament, your leg is the head of the motor protein, hip is the hinge. 6. o Muscle sacromere o Myosin is an actin "motor" o Myosin makes thick filaments in muscle
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o Myosin hydrolyzes ATP, pulls on the F-actin filaments to contract muscle o 7. o 250 µm in diameter o Made of 9 outer doublet microtubules: special double microtubules o 2 central microtubules o Very complex o ≈ 300 proteins! o 8. Endomembrane system o o Also includes plasma membrane o May be directly connected to each other or pass materials via vesicles 9. Nuclear envelope o Double membrane structure enclosing nucleus o Outer membrane of nuclear envelope is continuous w/ ER o Nuclear pores o Materials within the nucleus are not part of the endomembrane system 10. Nucleus o Chromosomes Chromatin o o Ribosome assembly in the nucleus 11. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) o Network of membranes that form flattened, fluid filled tubules or cisternae o ER membrane encloses the ER lumen *ER types* Rough ER Studded with ribosomes Smooth ER Lacks ribosomes Detox., carbohydrate metabolism, calcium balance, synthesis, & modification of lipids 12. Golgi apparatus (G Body) o Stack of flattened, membrane bounded compartments, not continuous with ER
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2008 for the course BIO 240 taught by Professor Evans during the Fall '08 term at Hope.

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BioNotes2 - Notes 4 5 Sunday 3:59 PM Chapter 4"General...

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