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BioNotes1 - Notes 1 4 15 Friday 1:06 AM Lecture CHAPTER...

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Notes §1, 4, 15 Friday, September 07, 2007 1:06 AM Lecture: CHAPTER 1 "An Introduction to Biology" PROPERTIES OF LIFE: 1. Unity o All modern forms of life display a common set of characteristics. o Based on biological evolution. 2. Diversity o Many types of environments w/ diverse organisms. SEVEN CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE: 3. Cells & Organization 4. Energy use & metabolism 5. Respond to environmental changes 6. Regulation & homeostasis 7. Growth & development 8. Reproduction 9. Product of biological evolution LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION 10. Atoms 11. Molecules/macromolecules 12. Cells 13. Tissues 14. Organs 15. Organisms 16. Populations 17. Communities 18. Ecosystems 19. Biosphere GENOMES & PROTEOMES Genome
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o "The complete genetic makeup of an organism." Evolutionary history and relatedness of all living organisms can be illuminated by genome analysis Genomics o "Techniques used to analyze DNA sequences in genomes Proteome o "The complete complement of proteins that a cell or organism can make. The genome carries the info to make its proteome Proteomics o Techniques used to analyze the proteome of a single species and the comparison of proteomes of different species. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------- CHAPTER 4 "Cell Theory" CELL THEORY All living things are composed of one or more cells Cells are the smallest units of living organisms New cells come only from pre-existing cells by cell division FRUITS OF CELL THEORY Cell division is the central phenomenon in reproduction & heredity Reveals great similarity among vastly different structures (unifying theme) Single cell (egg) may contain total heritage of most of the complex individual Improvement in microscopy = Improvement in understanding of cells CELL FUNCTION & STRUCTURE IS CONSERVED ACROSS ALL LIVING SYSTEMS All cells: o Compartmentalize contents away from environment o Contain DNA-based information systems o Maintain homeostasis internally o Have metabolism - use energy from environment to build structure(s)
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o Reproduce: grow & increase in # o Respond to stimuli o Move o Evolve & adapt to environment CELLS & NON-CELLS Life has made enormous changes to Earth
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