PracticeExam3Geology2

PracticeExam3Geology2 - ( 1r... 1 7 r." r) ,r ,7):...

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Unformatted text preview: ( 1r... 1 7 r." r) ,r ,7): run/7’ 3 up 0 ca: 1 '7 z ‘ ' J y ‘ Test 3 Geology 101 Spring 2007 Instructor: Dr. Andrew Hajash Mark answers on test first, transfer answers to Ch. 7, 8, 9, 10 scantron after finishing test Name RETURN TEST and SCANTRON (with UIN) DO NOT put UlN on this test 1) Which of the following sedimentary features can each be used to determine paleocurrent 1) directions? A) grain size sorting and ripple marks 13) cross bedding and ripple marks C) mud cracks and ripple marks D) fossils and mud cracks E) graded bedding near a zone of contact metamorphism 2) Which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and halite? 2) A) detrital sedimentary rocks B) varieties of coal and peat C) evaporates; chemical, sedimentary rocks D) varieties of dolostone 3) Which of the following best characterizes a disconformity? 3) A) The discordant boundary between older strata and an intrusive body of granite. 13) Bedding below and above the unconforrnity is parallel to the unconformity C) Tilted strata lie below the unconformity; bedding in younger strata above is parallel to the unconformity. D) Tilted strata lie below the unconformity with loose, unconsolidated soil above. 4) Which one of the following best describes the sedimentary rocks of the great state of Texas? 4) A) From East Texas to extreme south Texas, Tertiary sedimentary rocks dominate representing river, coastal and shallow marine deposition B) In general, they get younger moving from NW to SE. C) The hill country area of central Texas is composed mostly of shallow water marine limestones of Cretaceous age. D) all of the above are true 5) For a vertical, right lateral strike slip fault that strikes E—W, which one of the following best 5) describes the state of stress at the time of faulting? A) oz would have been vertical and 01 would have been oriented at N60W and horizontal B) 01 would have been vertical and 03 would have been oriented at N—S and horizontal C) 02 would have been vertical, 01 would have been oriented at N30E and horizontal D) 01 would have been vertical and 02 would have been oriented at NBOE and horizontal E) 02 would have been vertical, 01 would have been oriented at N60E and horizontal 6) Which type of sediment undergoes the most compaction as it lithifies to sedimentary rocks? 6) A) reef limestone B) marine mud C) coarse gravel D) desert dune sand 7) Tektites originate in what metamorphic environment? 7) A) low pressure and high temperature associated With volcanism B) high temperatures and shearing stresses in an oceanic—crust transform fault C) very high pressures and temperatures associated with deep subduction D) high temperatures associated with meteorite impacts 8) The half—life of carbon—14 is about 6000 years. Assume that a sample of charcoal formed by burning of living wood 19,000 years ago. How much of the original carbon—14 would remain today? A) between one—half and one—fourth B) between one—fourth and one—eighth C) between one-half and one—third D) more than one—half E) between one—eighth and one—sixteenth 9) Which of the following has the best developed foliation in regional metamorphism? A) phyllite B) slate C) schist D) granulite E) gneiss 10) In a fault, the hanging wall block moves up with respect to the footwall block. A) inverse B) normal C) abnormal D) reverse 11) In central Mongolia, we found a east—west trending zone of high temperature, low pressure metamorphic rocks. Just to the south of this zone is a parallel zone of high pressure, low temperature metamorphic rocks. Which of the following is the best interpretation of the formation of these rocks. A) Formed at a southward dipping subduction zone B) Formed at a westward dipping subduction zone C) Formed at a northward dipping subduction zone D) Formed at a continental rift zone by contact metamorphism E) Formed at a eastward dipping subduction zone 12) Which one of the following statements best describes the decay of 191(40 to 18Ar40? A) decays by capture of one neutron B) decays by emission of one beta particle C) decays byloss of one alpha particle D) decays by loss on one electron E) decays by nuclear capture of one electron 13) The rock on the top of Mt. Everest is a shallow marine limestone deposited 200 million years ago. What does this tell us about the geologic history of the Himalayas? A) Who cares What happened 200 million years ago? B) 200 million years ago, the ocean level was much higher than it is today so that limestones could be deposited at the top of the mountains C) 200 million years ago, the Himalayas did not exist. D) 200 million years ago, there was a high—alltitude lake at the top of the Himalayas. E) 200 million years ago, the Himalayas were located in the southern hemisphere under reversed magnetic polarity. 14) A sediment is termed detrital or elastic if it has been A) transported in solution and precipated elsewhere B) deposited under marine conditions C) buried deep below the earth's surface D) throughly cemented E) transported entirely as grains or solid particles 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) How many of the following strikes and clips for rock layers are impossible? 15) Measurements listered in the following order: Strike, dip, dip direction. N45W, 788W ; N4UE, 4:5NW; N—S, 75E; E~W, 308 A) 4 B) 0 C) 3 D) 2 E) 1 16) Which of the following describes radioactive decay by beta particle emission? 16) A) The daughter isotope has an atomic number two less than the parent and a mass number four less. B) The daughter isotope has an atomic number one less than the parent and a mass number two less. C) The mass number of the daughter isotope is one more than the parent and both isotopes have the same atomic number. D) The atomic number of the daughter isotope is one more than the parent; the mass numbers are the same. 17) A fault plane strikes N45W and dips steeply to the SW. Visual evidence indicates that most of 17) the fault movement was vertical (dip—slip) and that Jurassic rocks occur southwest of the fault while Permian rocks lie to the northeast. The fault is most likely a A) left—lateral strike—slip fault B) reverse fault C) low—angle thrust fault D) normal fault E) right-lateral strike slip fault 18) Graphite is identified in a particular schist. Which one of the following conclusions is justified? 18) A) The schist formed from a quartz—rich, sedimentary limestone. B) The graphite lubricated shearing movements along a fault, causing a schist to form. C) The rock also contains diamonds; both are crystalline forms of the element carbon. D) The pre—metamorphic rock was a shale or rnudstone containing organic matter. 19) How many of the following statements about regional metamorphism are correct? 19) 1. Takes place over a large geographic region (hundreds of miles) 2. Usually forms highly foliated rocks 3. Takes place where the geothermal gradient is intermediate (or normal) 4. Is usually asociated with continent-continent collision. 5. Is caused primarily by hydrothermal fluids. A)1 B)2 C)3 D)4 E)5 20) Which one of the following is a feasible explanation as to why quartz sandstone is an excellent 20) use of "uniformitarianism"? A) None of these statements make any sense to me; 1 want to go home Right Now! B) I should have taken bioloby instead of this stupid class! C) Layers of sand-size quartznrich sediment found today at the beach are virtually identical to layers in a 10—million year old sandstone, thus suggesting that the location of the sandstone was the location of a beach 10 million years ago. D) Layers of sand—size quartz—rich sediment found in a 10—rnillion year old sandstone are virtually identical to layers at a modern beach, so in about 10 million years, the sandstone will weather into a beach environment. E) Comparison of modern beach sands to 10—million year old sandstones is pointless and in no way demonstrates the principles of uniforrnitarianism. 21) Nonclastic textures are common in which of the following sedimentary rocks? 21) A) limestones B) boulder breccias C) sandstones D) cherty conglomerates 22) As seawater evaporites, which of the following best represents the sequence of mineral 22) precipitation, first to precipitate is on the left A) calcite, gypsum, halite B) gypsum, calcite, halite C) halite, gypsum, calcite D) Halite, gypsum, anhydrite, calcite, bittern salts E) halite then calcite (no others precipitate) 23) Amphibolite is a foliated metamorphic rock composed principally of hornblende and 23) plagioclase. How does it form? A) by the impact of an asteroid on interbedded sandstone and shale B) by contact metamorphism of sandstone along the contact with a granitic batholith C) by regional metamorphism of volcanic rocks such as andesite and basalt D) by gouging and crushing of limestone along a fault 24) Which of the following best describes the dominant mineralogy of detrital or clastic 24) sedimentary rocks A) olivine, pyroxene, and Ca—rich plagioclase B) hematite, magnetite and ilmenite C) calcite, dolomite and gypsum D) orthoclase, quartz and muscovite mica E) quartz and clay minerals 25) Which one of the following best describes what happens to sediment particles as they are 25) transported greater and greater distances in a river? A) The grains get slightly larger as they bounce along the bottom and adhere to other grains B) They get rounder and larger as they roll along the bottom. C) The grains get more angular as they break into smaller pieces. D) Nothing much happens to the grains as they are transported from the mountains to the oceans; however, once they reach the ocean, the salt water causes them to swell. E) They get smaller and more rounded 26) Which of the follow best represents a marine transgression in the field? 26) A) sandstone overlain by conglomerate overlain by breccia B) limestone overlain by shale overlain by sandstone C) shale overlain by sandstone overlain by arkose D) sandstone overlain by shale overlain by limestone 27) How many of the following about metamorphism are correct? (This was a clicker question) 27) 1. Mineral recrystallize to try to reach equilibrium 2. Some metamorphic rocks are non—foliated 3.Most contact metamorphism takes place where the geothermal gradient is low. 4. A schist has a higher degree of foliation than a slate 5. In general, the grain size of metamorphic rocks decreases with increasing grade A)1 B)2 C)3 D)4 E)5 28) Which of the following best describes conditions under which ductile deformation would be favored over brittle deformation? A) low or cool temperatures B) high confining pressures C) higher temperatures D) shallow depths E) both higher temperatures and higher confining pressures 29) In which setting would regional metamorphism be most likely? A) at a range of depths associated with continent—continent collision. B) At shallow depths below an oceanic ridge or continental rift zone. C) At very shallow depths near a large igneous intrusion like the Sierra Nevada batholith D) along passive continental margins where sediments are rapidly accumulating (like the Gulf of Mexico) E) at intermediate depths along major transform faults in the continental crust 30) Which one of the following accurately lists the relative order of geologic periods from oldest to youngest (periods may be missing in the sequence, but relative age must be correct) A) Silurian, Devonian, Triassic, Pennsylvanian B) Era, Period, Epoch, Age, nothing, system, series, stage C) Silurian, Ordovician, Cambrian, Devonian D) Triassic, Jurassic, Pennsylvanian, Mississippian E) Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary 31) Which one of the following statements is correct (TRUE) concerning the K—Ar clock? A) assumes that there is no Ca40 in the system B) assumes that the system or rock body behaves as an adiabatic system C) assumes that the decay rate of potassium to argon is constant. D) assumes that there is no radiogenic argon in the system when the clock starts E) can only date relatively young events, less than 60,000 years ago. 32) Which of the following sedimentary features would typically be found in shales but not in sandstones? A) ripple marks B) cross stratification C) bedding D) mud cracks 33) During metamorphism, what is the major effect of chemically active fluids? A) facilitate the formation of schistosity and gneissic banding in hornfels and slates B) increase the pressures in deeply buried, regional—metamorphic zones C) prevent partial melting so solid rocks can undergo very high temperature regional metamorphism D) aid in the movement of dissolved silicate constituents and facilitate growth of the mineral grains 34) Which one of the following is true for anticlines but not for synclines? A) After erosion, the younger strata are exposed along the axial region of the fold. B) The deeper strata are buckled upward along the fold axis. C) Some may be asymmetric and some may have plunging axes. D) The limbs dip or are inclined towards the fold axis. 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) Which of the following best describes the conditions of contact metamorphism? 35) A) Heat is generated by shearing and mechanical movements along faults. B) Depths are fairly shallow, but temperatures and pressures are so high that the rocks begin to partially melt. C) Pressures are very high, the rock is deeply buried, and temperatures are raised by the Earth's internal heat. D) Pressures are fairly low, the rock is in the upper part of the crust, and heat is supplied from a nearby magma body. 36) is the most common type of chemical sedimentary rock. 36) A) Quartz sandstone B) Phosphate rock C) Limestone D) Chert 37) Which of the following statements best describes why some metamorphic rocks are foliated? 37) A) they recrystallized when there was a differental stress on the rocks. B) they crystallized during burial metamorphism like happens at great depths along the Gulf of Mexico C) they recrystallized due to contact metamorphism D) they recrystallized at high temperatures and hydrostatic pressures 38) Use the diagram below to determine which one of the following statements is FALSE. 38) A) Sandstone is older than the Conglomerate and the Conglomerate is older than the shale B) Fault B is older than the sill and older than the Batholith C) Fault A happened after the deposition of the Sandstone but before the deposition of the Conglomerate. D) The sill is younger than the Batholith and older than Fault B. E) Dike A is younger than the rock layer that lies immediately above the shale. 39) Which one of the following is the best geologic definition of a sand? A) Has grains that are greater than 2 mm. B) Has grains that are less that 1/ 16 mm. C) Must feel good between your toes D) Has grains that are between 2 mm and 1/ 16 m. E) Must have well rounded grains of quartz that are between 2 mm and 1/ 16 mm. 40) What is the age of the Earth accepted by most scientists today? A) 6.4 million years B) 6.4 billion years C) 4.5 billion years D) 4.5 million years 41) In reverse faulting, . A) the crust is stretched and thinned B) the hanging wall block slips downward along the thrust fault C) grabens develop on the footwall block D) horizontal, tensional stresses drive the deformation E) the crust is shortened in the horzontal direction and thickened in the vertical direction 42) Which of the following would retain the most detailed impressions of fossilized organisms? A) quartz—rich sand deposited in shallow, beachfront environment B) an ancient, rainforest lateritic soil buried by basalt lava flows C) very fine—grained volcanic ash deposited in an ancient lake D) gravel and sand stream deposits laid down during flash floods 43) For a normal fault that strikes N—S and clips 60 degrees to the East, which one of the following best describes the state of stress at the time of faulting? A) 02 would have been vertical and 01 would have been oriented at N30E. B) 01 would have been vertical and 03 would have been oriented at N —S and horizontal. C) 01 would have been vertical and 02 would have been oriented at NSOE and horizontal. D) 01 would have been vertical, 02 would have been oriented at N—S and horizontal, and 03 would have been oriented E-W and horizontal. E) 01 would have been vertical, 02 would have been oriented at E—W and horizontal, and 03 would have been oriented N—S and horizontal. 44) When a radioactive isotope decays by electron capture, the electron A) makes the daughter isotope into an ion with a charge of positive one B) combines with a proton in the nucleus; the atomic number of the daughter is one less than the parent C) combines with a neutron in the nucleus, raising the mass number of the daughter isotope by one D) makes the parent isotope into an ion with a Charge of negative one 45) Which one of the following best describes why the most abundant rocks at the Earth's surface are sedimentary? A) They form at the Earth's surface, often as a result of weathering , erosion and deposition. B) In the rock cycle, igneous and metamorphic rocks are converted to sedimentary rocks at or near the Earth's surface C) Most are made of minerals that are thermodynamically stable at surface conditions D) all of the above are true 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 45) 46) 92U235 decays to a stable daughter by the loss of 7 alpha particles and 4 beta particles. Which 46) one of the following best describes the atomic weight and atomic number of this stable daughter? A) atomic weight = 225 atomic number = 78 B) atomic weight = 206 atomic number = 82 C) atomic weight = 82 atomic number = 207 D) atomic weight = 207 atomic number = 86 E) atomic weight = 207 atomic number = 82 47) The is the idea or concept that ancient life forms succeeded each other in a definite, 47) evolutionary pattern and that the contained assemblage of fossils can determine geologic ages of strata? A) law of fossil regression B) principle of cross correlation C) principle of fossil or faunal succession D) law of correlative indexing E) principle of fossil degradation 48) What is the major source of heat for contact metamorphism? 48) A) heat from the spontaneous decomposition of micas and feldspars B) heat from grinding and shearing on faults C) deep burial and heat from the Earth's interior D) heat from a nearby magma body 49) The ratio of parent to daughter isotopes in a radioactive decay process is 1.0. How many 49) half—lives have elapsed since the material was 100% parent atoms? A) between 1 and 2 half—lives B) much less than 1 half-life C) between 2 and 3 half—lives D) more than 3 half—lives E) about 1 half-life 50) What is probably the single most important, original, depositional feature in sedimentary 50) rocks? A) bedding or stratification B) degree of lithification C) compaction of the mud and clay D) sizes of the sand grains Answer Key Testname: 101TEST3SPO7 ...
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PracticeExam3Geology2 - ( 1r... 1 7 r." r) ,r ,7):...

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