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PracticeExamGeology4

PracticeExamGeology4 - 725,4 mew” Test 1 Geology 101 Fall...

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Unformatted text preview: 725,4 mew”? Test 1 Geology 101 Fall 2006 Instructor: Dr. Andrew Hajash Mark answers on test first, transfer answers to scantron after finishing test Name RETURN TEST and SCANTRON (with UIN) DO NOT put UIN on this test 1) Which one of the following statements is true? 1) A) In Wegener's theory of continental drift, most of the continents were together as a supercontinent about 200 my. ago. B) Paleoclimatic evidence indicates that India has always been located near the equator. C) In Wegener's concept of continental drift, new sea floor is generated at oceanic ridges and continents were irnbedded in lithospheric plates. D) Most of the evidence used by Wegener for his "theory" of continental drift came from magnetic anomalies in the ocean basins. 2) Where would you drill to recover samples of the oldest basalts of the oceanic crust, which are 2) Jurassic in age? A) just offshore from the Hawaiian Islands B) crest of the East Pacific Rise C) in the far western portion of the Pacific Ocean D) Mid—Atlantic Ridge under Iceland E) in the Gulf of California 3) The Aleutian Islands and the Tonga Islands are examples of volcanic island arcs associated 3) with continental rifting at divergent plate margins. A) True B) False 4) New oceanic crust and lithosphere are formed at _____. 4) A) convergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma B) convergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of rhyolitic magma C) divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma D) divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of rhyolitic magma 5) Which one of the following best represents the time that the dinosaurs died out (same as the 5) end of the Cretaceous Period) ? A) 10,000 years ago when we had the last ice age B) 35 million years ago when a meteorite hit the Chesapeake Bay Area C) 248 million years ago when the seas receded from many areas of the world D) 540 million years ago E) 65 million years ago 6) Which of the following represents most of geologic time? 6) A) Jurassic B) Triassic C) Tertiary . D) Precambrian E) Cambrian 7) Which statement best describes the inciinaton of the Earth‘s current geomagnetic field? A) Inclination is about 45 degrees everywhere on earth whereas declination varies systematically with latitude B) Inclination is vertical (90 degrees) near the equator C) Inclination is vertical near the poles and horizontal near the equator D) Inclination is a measure of the deviation of magnetic north from true north 8) In this class, I discussed "relative dating." Which of the following best describes this concept? A) dating your second and third cousins B) Going to a movie with your grandparents C) dating rocks using radioactive methods to get a numerical "age." D) placing events in their proper sequence or order without knowing their exact ages 9) The composition of the core of Earth is thought to be A) mantle B) basalt C) peridotite D) granite E) mostly Fe (iron) 10) are closest to the average chemical composition of the oceanic crust. A) Andesite and granite B) Granite and limestone C) Basalt and gabbro D) Rhyolite and diorite 11) Large rift zones are generally associated with a plate boundary. A) lunar B) divergent C) convergent D) transform E) Plutonion or dwarf 12) How many of the following statements are true? (This was a clicker question). * Divergent plate margins can occur only at oceanic ridges * new lithosphere is formed at oceanic ridges. * As oceanic lithosphere evolves, it gets older, colder, denser, thicker and deeper. * Seismic activity (earthquakes) at oceanic ridges includes the deepest and strongest earthquakes ever recorded. 1. Continent—continent collision must be preceded by subduction of oceanic lithosphere. A)2 B)5 C)4 D)3 13) In terms of volume, most of the universe and most of matter appears to be (Hint: think of the "powers or 10" simulation we did on the web) A) made up of liquid iron B) empty space C) dense and solid D) made up of pizza and ice cream E) converging on the earth E)1 7) 8) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) Deep ocean trenches are surficial evidence for . 14) A) rising of hot asthenosphere from deep in the mantle B) rifting beneath a continental plate and the beginning of continental drift C) transform faulting between an oceanic plate and a continental plate D) sinking of oceanic lithosphere into the mantle at a subduction zone 15) The currently accepted age of Earth is years. 15) A) 4.6 million B) 15 billion C) 6.4 trillion D) 4.6 billion E) 3000 16) The modem-day Red Sea is explained by plate tectonics theory because it is . 16) A) a tiny remnant of a once immense ocean that was closed as Africa moved Asia B) a rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate C) a rare example of a two continent subduction zone where the African continental plate is sinking under the Arabian continental plate D) the site of a transform fault along which Arabia is moving away from Africa 17) most effectively outline all of the edges of the lithospheric plates. 17) A) Regions of active earthquakes B) Locations of normally magnetized rocks C) Locations of continental shields D) Margins of the continental shelves E) The locations of deep mantle hot spots 18) Which one of the following best describes why old lithosphere is "easier" to subduct than 18) young lithosphere. A) old lithosphere is more magnetically attracted to the outer core B) young lithosphere is colder and less dense than old lithosphere C) young lithosphere is hotter and more dense than old lithosphere D) old lithosphere prefers to be subducted during normal magnetic polarity like we have now E) old lithosphere is colder and more dense than young lithosphere 19) As used in this class, which one of the following statements is the best definition of a "light 19) year" A) time it takes light to travel across our solar system B) A year of taking only 3 credits per semester C) time it takes for light to reach the Earth from the sun. D) the distance that light travels in one year E) A year of eating only 3000 calories per day 20) Linear, magnetic patterns associated with mid-ocean ridges are configured as . 20) A) normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly perpendicular to the ridge axis B) concentric circles about a rising plume of hot, mantle rocks and magma C) reversed magnetizations along the rift valleys and normal magnetizations along the ridge D) normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly parallel to the ridge 21) The continental shelf is located A) seaward of the continental slope B) between the continental slope and continental rise C) landward of the continental slope D) between the continental rise and the abyssal plains 22) The proposes that the bodies of our solar system formed at essentially the same time from a rotating cloud of gases and dust. A) Big Band theory B) Nebular hypothesis C) Plate Tectonics theory D) Heliocentric theory 23) Edward Hubble is credited with the Big Bang Theory. Which one of the following best describes Hubble's observations supporting this theory? A) Many galaxies have spiral or elliptical shapes. B) All galaxies are moving away from us, and distant ones are moving faster than neighbors (closer galaxies) C) our galaxy is about 100 light years across D) The Earth is about 4.5 billion years old E) the cow jumped over the moon and the dish ran away with the spoon 24) The top of the asthenosphere is closest to Earth's surface . A) along a transform fault B) along a mid—ocean ridge C) along a subduction zone D) along a passive continental margin 25) Which one of the following accurately lists the relative order of geologic periods from oldest to youngest (periods may be missing in the sequence, but relative age must be correct) A) Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, Permian, Triassic B) Era, Period, Epoch, Age, nothing, system, series, stage C) Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic, Tertiary D) Cambrian, Silurian, Devonian, Ordovician E) Triassic, Jurassic, Pennsylvanian, Mississippian 26) Which of the following statements apply to the asthenosphere, but not the lithosphere? A) partial melting of rising granitic plumes produces huge volumes of basaltic magma B) cool, rigid layer of crust and upper mantle that forms the tectonic plates C) zone in the upper mantle that is relatively weak compared to the material above and below it. D) deforms mainly by brittle fracturing and faulting E) most deep earthquakes occur in this layer 27) Which one of the following statements is true? A) Most of the mass of our solar system is in the sun. B) The Earth and other planets appear to be about 4—5 million years old. C) The "Nebular Hypothesis" is an attempt to explain the origin of the Milky Way galaxy D) It is clear that the our solar system is close to the center of our galaxy. E) The "Big Bang" is believed to have taken place about 4-5 billion years ago 21) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) Compared to the age of Earth accepted as correct today, how did 17th and 18th century proponents of catastrophism envision the Earth's age? A) They believed it to be about the same as current estimates, give or take a few million years. 3) They believed Earth to be much younger than current estimates. C) They believed Earth to be much older than current estimates. D) None of the above—they didn't really address the age of Earth. 29) Of the layers listed below, which one is the largest (occupies most of the volume)? A) outer core B) inner core C) mantle D) crust E) lithosphere 30) During the origin of the solar system, a slowly rotating cloud of dust begins to contract (mass moves toward center of rotation). What must happen to the speed of rotation? A) It must decrease to conserve angular momentum. B) It must stay the same. C) It must increase to conserve angular momentum 31) Which one of the following is NOT an accurate observation about our solar system? Which one is NOT TRUE? A) planets revolve about the sun in the same direction with ellipitical orbits B) All components that orbit the sun are about the same age, with the sun being about 1 billion years older than the other parts C) most of the giant outer planets and the sun are composed primarily of H, and He D) the planets have most of the angular momentum compared to the sun E) The giant outer planets are more dense than the inner terrestrial planets 32) All of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation except for A) the collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement B) development of observations and experiments to test the hypotheses C) assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation D) the development of one or more working hypotheses or models to explain facts 33) The is thought to be a liquid, metallic region in the Earth's interior. A) mantle B) outer core C) inner core D) lithosphere 34) Mount St. Helens and the other Cascade volcanoes are . A) a row of young, active, volcanoes built as western North America moved over a hot spot deep in the mantle B) old, deeply eroded volcanoes built before the Pacific Ocean existed C) old, deeply eroded, basaltic volcanoes built when western North America was over the present-day site of the Hawaiian hot spot D) young, active volcanoes built on u the continental margin above a sinking slab of oceanic lithosphere 28) 29) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) A(nl system is one in which heat cannot be transferred across the boundaries of th e system. A) equilibrated B) open C) feedback D) closed E) adiabatic 36) The most prominent features on the ocean floor are the A) oceanic ridges B) deep—ocean trenches C) seamounts D) lava plateaus 37) Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sinks into the mantle at A) transform fault zones along divergent plate boundaries B) subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries C) rift zones along mid—ocean ridges D) sites of long—lived, hot spot volcanism in the ocean basins 38) According to the Big Bang Theory, the age of the universe is approximately A) 15 billion years B) 3000 years C) 4.7 billion years D) 580 million years E) 10-15 million years 39) Which one of the following best describes the position of the continent and the polarity of the magnetic field when the rock acquired its magnetization. Refer to figure on transparency. A) it was at the equator under reversed polarity B) it was near the south pole under normal polarity (or near the north pole under reversed polarity C) it was in the northern hemisphere during reversed polarity D) it was in the southern hemisphere during normal polarity E) it was in the southern hemisphere during reversed polarity 40) Scientists have found evidence that a 1.0 million year old magnetic boundary is located about 50 kilometers from the Mid—Atlantic Ridge. Which of the following best represents the average spreading rate in centimeters] year A) 5cm/yr B) 500 cm/yr C) 10 cm/yr D) 50cm/yr E) 0.5 cm/yr 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 4U) 41. Two lava flows formed at the same location on a plate, 90 million years apart. The plate, initialiy in the northern hemisphere, migrated 500 km northward in the time between the formation of the first and second lava flows. Scientists sampled rocks from both lava flows and measured the magnetic inclination of each sample. (Assume normal polarity for both lavas.) Which statement is TRUE? A. Magnetic inclination decreased from the first to the second lava flow. B. Magnetic inclination increased from the first to the second lava flow. Review the map of the plates below and answer the following question. 42. The ocean floor becomes progressively moving from D toward K. a. older b. younger 43. The ocean floor becomes progressively moving from the eastern margin of South America toward L. a. older b. younger 44. Which two locations will remain the same distance apart, regardless of plate motions? a.B&C b.B&K C.G&L d.F&G 45. The youngest oceanic lithosphere is located at . a.C b.D c.M d.L The schematic cross sections below illustrate four models of relative plate motions and plate boundary geometry. 46. Which of the cross sections best represents the characteristics of the plate boundary at location 2 on the map below? 47. Which of the cross sections best represents the characteristics of the plate boundary at location 3 on the map below? 48. Which of the cross sections best represents the characteristics of the plate boundary at location 6 on the map below? 49. Which of the cross sections best represents the characteristics of the plate boundary at location 8 on the map below? 50. Which of the cross sections best represents the characteristics of the plate boundary at location 9 on the map below? Answer Key Testname: 101TEST1FALL2006 1) A 2) c 3) B 4) c 5) E 6) D 7) c 3) D 9) E 10) c 11) B 12) D 13) B 14) D 15) D 16) B 17) A 13) E 19) D 20) D 21) c 22) B 23) B 24) B 25) A 26) c 27) A 23) B 29) c 30) c 31) E 32) c 33) B 34) D 35) E 36) A 37) B 38) A 39) E 40) A ...
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