PracticeExam2Geology1

PracticeExam2Geology1 - Test 3 Geology 101 Spring 2007...

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Unformatted text preview: Test 3 Geology 101 Spring 2007 Instructor: Dr. Andrew I-Iajash Name [OI TesTQ 9907- P4? Chances 3, 4, 9’, C. scantron after finishing test Mark answers on test first, transfer answers to RETURN TEST and SCANTRON (with UIN) DO NOT put UIN on this test 1) What is the charge or valence on a single silicate tetrahecron? A) —1 B) —3 C) -4 D) 0 E) +4 2) Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock? A) A rock consists of atoms bonded in a regular, geometrically predictable arrangement; a mineral is a consolidated aggregate of different rock particles. B) A mineral consists of its constituent atoms arranged in a geometrically repetitive structure; in a rock, the atoms are randomly bonded without any geometric pattern. C) A rock has an orderly, repetitive, geometrical, internal arrangement of minerals; a mineral is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of rocks. D) In a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains. 3) How many of the following represent erosion? 1. frost wedging 2. exfoliation due to unloading 3. a river carrying small rock particles downstream 4. a landslide 5. hydrolysis of feldspar 6. wind blowing sand around in a dust storm 7.0xidation of paint on your car 8. dissolution of limestone by acid rain A) 5 B) 3 C) 7 D) 6 E)4 4) What is the charge or valence on C (carbon) in the mineral calcite (CaCO3)? A) -3 B) +4 C) +5 D) —4 E) none of the above 5) Which one of the following best describes the formation of granite domes like Enchanted Rock and Half Dome? A) unloading during erosion of overlying rocks cause exfoliation fractures to form like layers of an onion B) hydrolysis of feldspars play the major role in formation of the domes C) the domes represent basaltic magmas that have undergone fractional crystallization of olivine D) loading caused by glaciers result in exfoliation fracturesthat look like layers of an onion E) the domes were shaped that way by park officials using explosives 6) How many of the following chemical formulas for minerals are correctly balanced (electrically neutral)? sro MgSiO4 B)4 KAlSizOS CaA128i206 A)3 (3)2 D)1 E)0 1) 2) 7) Which one of the following best describes the dominant minerals in an andesite? A) Intermediate plagioclase (Na and Ca about equal), amphibole, and pyroxene B} Ca—rich plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine C) Ca—rich plagioclase, pyroxene, and quartz D) Na—rich plagioclase, amphibole, and quartz E) Na—rich plagioclase, K—feldspar (orthoclase), and quartz 8) Isotopes of the same element, zinc for example, have the same number of A) neutrons in the nucleus 13) electrons in the nucleus C) neutrons in the outer nuclear shell D) protons in the nucleus E) beta particles in the valence electron shell 9) A(n) system. A) closed B) open C) adiabatic D) equilibrated E) simple mechanical system is one in which there can be no heat transferred in or out of the 10) Which one of the following best describes the silica tetrahedron A) O surrounded by four Si B) Si surrounded by four Al C) Si surrounded by three 0 D) Si surrounded by six 0 E) Si surrounded by four 0 11) Which one of the following best characterizes the volcanic activity on the "Big Island" of Hawaii? A) The volcanic activity consists primarily of low viscosity rhyolite and andesite lava flows. B) During eruptive periods, lahars are very common because of high rainfall and the large amount of fine—grained volcanic ash emitted. C) The volcanic activity occurs at intervals of every 500—600 years. D) Plumes of pyroclastic debris are commonly blown high into the atmosphere during major eruptive events and nuee ardente are common. E) Most of the volcanic activity consists of very fluid (low viscosity) basaltic lava flows. 12) The olivine solid solution series is best described as A) simple substitution of Si+4= for Al+3 13) coupled substitution of Na+1 for K+1 and Br—l for Cl—l. C) simple substitution of Mg+2 for Fe+2 D) coupled substitution of Na+1 for Ca+2 and Si+4 for Al+3 E) simple substitution of Na+1 for Cl—l 10) 11) 12) 13) Which of the following is correct for isotopes of the same element? A) The atoms have different numbers of protons and the same number of neutrons. B) The atoms have different numbers of electrons but the same number of neutrons. C) The atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons. D) The atoms have the same number of electrons and different numbers of protons. 14) Which one of the following is a typical product of weathering? A) clays B) micas C) ferromagnesians D) feldspars 15) The plagioclase solid solution series is best described as A) coupled substitution of Na+1 for K+1 and Br—l for Cl—l. B) simple substitution of Na+1 for (31—1 C) coupled substitution of Na+1 for Ca+2 and Si+4 for Al+3 D) simple substitution of Si+4 for Al+3 E) simple substitution of Mg+2 for Fe+2 16) Which one of the following statements based on Mohs scale of hardness is FALSEe? A) A knife blade can scratch calcite but not quartz B) fluorite is harder than calcite C) corumdum is harder than topaz D) Fluorite can scratch quartz E) orthoclase is harder than apatite 17) Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates? A) They contain magnetite and ferroite and they are clear to light green. B) They contain iron and magnetite, are black in color, and they have metallic lusters. C) They are black to dark—green, silicate minerals containing iron and magnesium. D) They are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the elements magnesium and ferrium. 18) Which one of the following best characterizes the 1980 (May 18, 8:32 am) eruption of Mt. St. Helens? A) The eruption had only a lateral blast to the North, which knocked trees down. B) The eruption produced mostly andesitic lava flows with very damaging lahars. C) The eruption went mostly vertical, followed by a small basaltic lava flow from the base of the volcano near Spirit Lake. D) Almost at the same time, there was a vertical blast, a large slump (mass slide) on the North side of the volcanoe, and a lateral blast. E) Most of the volcanic activity consisted of very fluid (low viscosity) basaltic lava flows. 19) Magma tends to rise toward the earth's surface principally because: A) silica is abundant in rhyolitic magmas B) magmas are generally less dense than the solid rocks around them C) they want to feel the sun on their backs D) magmas are usually more dense than the rocks around them E) water is an abundant constituent in magma making it more viscous 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) Which one of the following best characterizes the volcanic activity on a stratovolcano like Mt. Pinatubo or Mt. St. Helens? A) The volcanic activity consists primarily of low viscosity rhyolite and andesite lava flows. B) The volcanic activity is very similar in nature to the activity on Hawaii. C) Has both lavas (mostly andesites) and pyroclastic debris (Cinders and ash) produced by violent explosive eruptions . D) Most of the volcanic activity consists of very fluid (low viscosity) basaltic lava flows. E) During eruptive periods, only gas comes out of the volcano. tend to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano. A) Low silica content, low viscosity B) High viscosity, high dissolved gas content C) High viscosity; low dissolved gas content D) Low viscosity; low dissolved gas content 21) 22) Which one of the following statements is FALSE? A) partial melting of a peridotite could produce a diorite B) Fractional crystallization of a silicate magma usually results in a residual liquid that has more silica than the original C) partial melting of a granite could produce an andesite D) fractional crystallization of a basaltic magma could produce an andesite. E) Partial melting of a basalt could produce a rhyolite. 23) Which of the following is associated with deep mantle hot spots? A) Mt. St. Helens and other volcanoes of the Cascade Mountains B) the very young cinder cones scattered across the southwestern United States C) the volcanoes of Hawaii and the volcanic activity in Yellowstone National Park D) Vesuvius and the other volcanoes of Italy 24) Changing the composition of magma by incorporating surrounding host rock is known as B) differentiation D) partial melting A) magma mixing C) assimilation 25) Which one of the following best describes the dominant minerals in a granite? A) Ca—rich plagioclase, pyroxene, and quartz B) Na—rich plagioclase, amphibole, and olivine C) Na-rich plagioclase, K—feldspar (orthoclase), and quartz D) Intermediate plagioclase (Na and Ca about equal), amphibole, and pyroxene E) Ca—rich plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine 26) Which one of the following best describes the dominant minerals in a gabbro? A) Na—rich plagioclase, amphibole, and quartz B) Intermediate plagioclase (Na and Ca about equal), amphibole, and pyroxene C) Ca—rich plagioclase, pyroxene, and quartz D) Ca-rich plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine E) Na—rich plagioclase, K—feldspar (orthoclase), and quartz 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) Which one of the following statements is FALSE ? A) Basalts are produced by partial melting of andesite or diorite. B) For dry silicate systems, melting temperatures increase with increasing pressure or depth C) Decompression melting is probably the main process producing magmas a divergent margins such as oceanic ridges D) Rhyolitic magma could be produced by fractional crystallization of an andesitic magma. 28) Which one of the following shows the correct order (left to right) of decreasing magma viscosity? A) rhyolite, andesite, basalt C) andesite, rhyolite, basalt B) basalt, andesite, rhyolite D) basalt, rhyolite, andesite 29) Which kind of eruptive activity is most likely to be highly explosive? A) Lava flows from a large shield volcano on an oceanic island. B) Lava flows from a large cinder cone complex. C) Fissure eruptions feeding lava to flood basalt accumulations. D) Eruptions of big, continental margin, composite cones or stratovolcanoes. 30) Kilauea and Mauna Loa are A) explosive, rhyolitic volcanoes C) basaltic shield volcanoes B) small, basaltic cinder cones D) andesitic stratovolcanoes 31) Which of the following is / are most susceptible to chemical weathering by dissolution? A) clay minerals B) iron oxides C) quartz D) calcite 32) Which of the following best describes the hydrolysis of potassium feldspar (orthoclase) in the weathering environment? A) acid attacks the feldspar and forms quartz and calcite with a decrease in pH B) acid attacks the feldspar releasing aqueous K+ and silica and forming clay minerals C) a simple oxidation / reduction reaction forming ferromagnesium phases D) a simple hydration reaction (adding water) in a closed system E) a common simple dissolution process like the dissolution of halite 33) Which term best describes an accumulation of angular rock fragments at the base of a steep, bedrock slope or cliff? A) taliche slope D) talus slope B) tellus slope C) trellis slope 34) Carbonic acid (HZCOS) , which is a very important weathering agent, forms predominantly by A) the weathering of organic matter B) water reacting with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere C) the breakdown of calcite to water and carbon dioxide D) the breakdown of hydrocarbons E) the interaction of cosmic rays with nitrogen in the upper atmosphere 35) Hornblende and the other amphiboles have what type of silicate structure? A) metallic B) double chains C) 3—D framework D) sheet 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) Which one of the following statements is FALSE ? A) lava is magma that flows on the Earth's surface as a silicate liquid B) The volcanic eruptions on the island of Hawaii are relatively quite and non explosive compared to the eruptions from Mt. St. Helens. C) Generally, rhyolitic magmas are extruded at lower temperatures than basaltic magmas. D) The greater the silica content of a magma, the less viscous it is. 37) What do pumice and obsidian have in common? A) ultramafic composition C) glassy texture B) phaneritic texture D) basaltic composition 38) According to the movie "Volcanoes Deadly Warning," which one of the following statements is most accurate? A) Type B seismic tremors were attributed to breaking or fracturing of the rocks and Type A seismic tremors were attributed to episodic magma movement. B) Type A seismic tremors were attributed to breaking or fracturing of the rocks and Type B seosrnic tremors were attributed to episodic magma movement. 39) Which one of the following statements is FALSE (You may find it helpful to sketch the melting curves for some igneous rocks before selecting your answer.) A) Wet magmas tend to crystallize before they reach the surface B) dry rocks could be melted by lowering the pressure and lowering the temperature. C) the presence of water substantially lowers the melting temperatures D) the breakdown of hydrous minerals could cause melting E) Dry rocks could be melted by raising the pressure without raising the temperature. 40) Which one of the following statements best describe pyroxenes? A) has a double chain silicate structure that contains water in the form of OH. B) has a single chain silicate structure and is generally not hydrous (does not contain water in the form of OH) C) has a single chain silicate structure that contains water in the form of OH. D) has a sheet-silicate structure that expands when wet E) has a 3-D framework silicate structure that contains water in the form of OH. 41) is composed mainly of ferromagnesian minerals. A) Rhyolite B) Peridotite C) Granite D) Andesite 42) Which of the following minerals tend to be the most stable in the weathering environment? A) Ca—rich feldspars B) Amphiboles and Pyroxenes C) quartz D) muscovite and biotite micas E) Mg—rich olivine 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) Pockets of magmas can be formed by the melting of deep continental crust heated by the intrusion of other magmas. Which of the following correctly describes this process? A) Intruded rhyolite magma causes basalt magma to form by melting of granite. B) Intrusion of basaltic magma causes deep crustal rocks to melt, producing andesitic or rhyolitic magmas. C) Intrusion of diorite magma causes basalt magma to melt from peridotite. D) All of the above correctly describe the process. 44) Which region has the greatest concentration of currently active volcanoes? A) European Russia and Siberia B) the circum—Pacific area C) the coastal plain of western Africa D) the area surrounding the Red Sea 45) Which one of the following statements about an ideal soil profile is FALSE? A) the A horizon is included as part of the "topsoil." B) clays often accumulate in the B horizon C) humus accumulates in and is most abundant in the C horizon D) the B horizon is above the C horizon 46) According to the movie "Volcanoes Deadly Warning," which one of the following holds the most promise for predicting volcanic eruptions ? A) the amount of rainfall that the area receives per year B) the amount and composition of gases coming out of a fumerole near the volcanic crater. C) the number of long, periodic, harmonic tremors observed by sensitive seismographs D) the proximity to a subduction zone. E) the time since the last eruption. 47) For the following questions, refer to the diagram below. Which line represents the solidus for a dry silicate system? A) 7 B) 2 C) 6 D) 4 E) 3 48) Which line represents the solidus for a wet (water saturated) silicate system? A) 3 B) 2 C) 7 D) 4 E) 6 49) Which line represents a low geothermal gradient? A) 1 B) 3 C) 6 D) 8 E) 7 50) For a wet system with temperature and pressure equal to that occupied by the number "4," what would be present? A) liquid only B) liquid plus solid C) solid only as? if l‘ «r {4 " 5' r l V 1' V J I l 43) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) Answer Key Testname: 101TEST28P07 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course GEOL 101 taught by Professor Olinsky during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.

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PracticeExam2Geology1 - Test 3 Geology 101 Spring 2007...

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