PracticeExam2Geology3

PracticeExam2Geology3 - ;T%3sf61}79é>*f‘3{2 Geology...

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Unformatted text preview: }:;;;T%3sf61}79é>*f‘3{2) Geology 101 Fall 2006 Test 2 Andrew Hajash, Professor Work test first, fill out scantron last! Name WRITE ANSWERS ON TEST! 1) Which one of the following statements is FALSE ? 1) A) lava is magma that flows on the Earth's surface as a silicate liquid B) The greater the silica content of a magma, the less viscous it is. C) Generally, rhyolitic magmas are extruded at lower temperatures than basaltic magmas. D) The volcanic eruptions on the island of Hawaii are relatively quite and non explosive compared to the eruptions from Mt. St. Helens. 2) What is the charge or valence on C (carbon) in the mineral calcite (CaCO3)? 2) A) none of the above B)+5 C) -3 D) -4 E) +4 3) How many of the following statements are true (according to the movie we saw on the 1991 3) eruption of Mt. Pinatubo? 1) the main eruption was preceeded by a number of smaller eruptions and steam explosions 2) this volcano has been very active in the past 300 years before the 1991 eruption. 3) this volcanic eruption was about 10 times "bigger" than the 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens 4) Most of the damage was done by lahars. 5)the number of earthquakes beneath the volcano increased dramatically before the eruption. A) 1 B) 4 C) 2 D) 5 E) 3 4) Which one of the following statements about an ideal soil profile is FALSE? 4) A) clays often accumulate in the B horizon B) the A horizon is included as part of the "topsoil." C) the B horizon is above the C horizon D) humus accumulates in and is most abundant in the C horizon For the following question(s) match the numbered term with the best—fit lettered term. A) potassium feldspar B) pyroxene C) olivine D) biotite E) amphibloe 5) sheet silicate 5) 6) single—chain silicate 6) 7) 3—D "framework" silicate 7) 8) double-chain silicate 8) 9) Which of the following statements best describes most composite or strato volcanoes? 9) A) lie along the crest of the an oceanic ridge or spreading center B) are situated above a hot spot originating deep in the mantle C) lie directly above a transform plate boundary that cuts deeply into the mantle D) are very common in the coastal plains of east Texas E) are associated with active subduction zones where one plate is sinking into the mantle 10) In general, partial melting of silicates produces a liquid that is A) about the same composition as the parent B) more silica rich than the parent C) less silica rich than the parent 11) Which of the following best describes Shiprock, a famous igneous feature in New Mexico? A) an extinct, highly symmetrical, composite volcanic cone B) a very recently active, basaltic cinder cone C) the eroded remains of a volcanic pipe and radiating dikes D) an extinct, massive, rhyolitic shield volcano E) an igneous batholith that has been carved into the shape of a ship hitting a large rock by parties unknown. 12) Of those listed below, is the rock that is most readily dissolved by acid rain. A) Granite B) Obsidian C) limestone D) rhyoiite E) peridotite 13) Which of the following is correct for isotoPes of the same element? A) The atoms have different numbers of protons and the same number of neutrons. B) The atoms have the same number of electrons and different numbers of protons. C) The atoms have different numbers of electrons but the same number of neutrons. D) The atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons. 14) Assume that water filling a crack in a rock undergoes cycles of freezing and melting. Which of the following statement is true? A) Water shrinks as it melts, causing the crack walls to be pulled closer together. B) Water shrinks as it freezes, causing the crack walls to be drawn closer together. C) Water expands as it melts, causing the crack walls to be pushed apart. D) Water expands as it freezes, causing the crack walls to be pushed apart. 15) Which one of the following best describes the dominant minerals in a granite? A) Na—rich plagioclase, amphibole, and olivine B) Na-rich plagioclase, K—feldspar (orthoclase), and quartz C) Ca—rich plagioclase, pyroxene, and quartz D) Intermediate plagioclase (Na and Ca about equal), amphibole, and pyroxene E) Ca—rich plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine 16) The olivine solid solution series is best described as A) coupled substitution of N a+1 for K+1 and Br-l for Cl—l. B) simple substitution of Si+4 for Al+3 C) simple substitution of Na+1 for Cl—1 D) simple substitution of Mg+2 for Fe+2 E) coupled substitution of Na+1 for Ca+2 and Si+4 for Al+3 17) Which one of the following statements based on Mohs scale of hardness is true? A) Fluorite can scratch quartz B) calcite is harder than fluorite C) A knife blade can scratch quartz but not calcite D) apatite is harder that orthoclase E) topaz can scratch quartz 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) Which one of the following statements best describe amphiboles? A) has a 3—D framework silicate structure that contains water in the form of OH. B) has a sheet—silicate structure that expands when wet C) has a double chain silicate structure that contains water in the form of OH. D) has a single chain silicate structure that contains water in the form of OH. E) has a single chain silicate structure and is generally not hydrous (does not contain water in the form of OH) 19) An atom and an ion of the same element must have the same number of A) none of the above B) electrons C) all of the above D) neutrons E) protons 20) Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates? A) They are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the elements magnesium and ferrium. B) They are black to dark-green, silicate minerals containing iron and magnesium. C) They contain magnetite and ferroite and they are clear to light green. D) They contain iron and magnetite, are black in color, and they have metallic lusters. 21) Which one of the following statements is false? A) partial melting of a peridotite could produce a diorite B) partial melting of a granite could produce an andesite C) Fractional crystallization of a silicate magma usually results in a residual liquid that has more silica than the original 22) Clay minerals, silica (SiOz), and potassium dissolved in the soil water are products of which process? A) hydrolysis of orthoclase feldspar B) mechanical weathering of granite and rhyolite C) differential mechanical weathering of micas D) chemical weathering of olivine and plagioclase feldspar 23) Was any magma observed before the 1991 Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines ? Choose the best answer. A) Yes, a basaltic lava flow preceeded the main eruption by about 1 week. B) No, only steam and small explosions preceeded the main eruprion. C) Yes, magma was observed in a lava dome inside the crater. 24) The ion at the center of a silicate tetrahedron is surrounded by A) 6 oxygen ions B) 6 sodium ions C) 4 sodium ions D) 4 oxygen ions 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) Which one of the following best describes theproduction of carbonic acid in atmosphere? A) Acid (H+) in water causes limestone (calcite) to dissolve. B) Water reacts with CO2 in the atmosphere. C) "I-Iydros" in the water cause electrons to be lost from one element and gained by another to form an ionic bond. D) Acid (H+) in water attacks a mineral releasing cations and silica and producing a clay mineral as a residual product. E) halite dissolving completely in acidic rain water 26) Which one of the following statements is false? A) partial melting of a granite could produce an andesite B) partial melting of a peridotite could produce a diorite C) Fractional crystallization silicate usually results in a residual liquid that has more silica than the original 27) Magma tends to rise toward the earth's surface principally because: A) rocks generally become less dense when they melt B) they want tosee and feel the sun on their backs C) magmas of usually more dense than the rocks around them D) silica is abundant in rhyolitic magmas E) water is an abundant constituent in magma making it more viscous 28) Which kind of eruptive activity is most likely to be highly explosive? A) Eruptions of large composite cones or stratovolcanoes associated with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. B) Lava flows from a large shield volcano on an oceanic island. C) Fissure eruptions feeding lava to flood basalt accumulations. D) Lava flows from a large cinder cone complex. B) basalts that erupt under the sea along an oceanic ridge system like the East Pacific Rise. 29) tend to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano. A) High viscosity; low dissolved gas content B) Low viscosity; low dissolved gas content C) Low silica content, low viscosity D) High viscosity and dissolved gas 30) The 1943 eruption of Paricutin in Mexico was characterized by A) pyroclastic eruptions and nuee’ ardente flows B) welded—tuff deposition and caldera formation C) cinder cone building and basaltic lava D) mudflows and explosive ash eruptions 31) Which of the following best describes an aphanitic texture? A) The rock is crystalline; mineral grains are too small to be visible without a magnifying lens or microscope. B) The rock consists of broken, volcanic—rock and mineral fragments. C) The mineral grains have glassy textures. D) The rock is crystalline; mineral grains are of distinctly different sizes. 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) Which of the following statements concerning humus is not true? A) consists of decaying and partly decayed leaves and other plant materials B) is typically found above the B soil horizon C) forms very thick layers on steep, non—vegetated slopes 33) ‘Nhich of the following is associated with deep mantle hot spots? A) Vesuvius and the other volcanoes of Italy B) Mt. St. Helens and other volcanoes of the Cascade Mountains C) the very young cinder cones scattered across the southwestern United States D) the volcanoes of Hawaii and the Quaternary activity in Yellowstone National Park 34) Which one of the following mineral groups exhibits a sheet-like silicate structure? A) carbonates B) feldspars C) clays D) pyroxenes 35) Which one of the following is not true for minerals? A) They can be identified by characteristic physical properties. B) They have a specific, internal, crystalline structure. C) They can be a liquid, solid, or glass. D) They have a specific, predictable chemical composition. 36) Which one of the following statements is FALSE (You may find it helpful to sketch the melting curves for some igneous rocks before selecting your answer.) A) wet magmas tend to crystallize before they reach the surface B) most rocks can be melted by raising the temperature C) the presence of water substantially lowers the melting temperatures D) dry rocks could be melted by IOWering the pressure and lowering the temperature. E) Dry rocks could be melted by raising the pressure without raising the temperature. 37) Which of the following best describes the difference between magma and lava? A) Magma is any partially or completely melted rock; lava is magma that reaches the surface B) Lavas have phenocrysts but magmas do not have phenocrysts. C) If a magma has no crystals or gases within it, it is called "lava" D) Lava is the name given to magma that stays below the surface and is intrusive 38) What is the fundamental energy source that drives processes of mass wasting? A) thermal energy from radioactive decay of U, Th, and K. B) geomagnetic and electrical energy C) gravity (gravitational attraction between masses) D) ionic bonding E) thermal energy (heat) transferred to the surface by conduction 39) Which one of the following statements is FALSE ? A) Decompression melting is probably the main process producing magmas at convergent margins (subduction zones). B) For dry silicate systems, melting temperatures increase with increasing pressure or depth C) Rhyolitic magma could be produced by fractional crystallization of an andesitic magma. D) Basalts can be produced by partial melting of peridotite, the dominant rock type in the mantle. ' E) Andesites could be produced by fractional crystallization of a basaltic magma. 32) 33) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) Which of the following best characterizes felsic minerals? A) They are black to dark—green, silicate minerals containing iron and magnesium. B) They are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the elements magnesium and ferrium. C) They contain feldspars like Ca—rich plagioclase. D) They contain light-colored minerals like quartz, orthoclase, muscovite, and Na-rich plagioclase. 41) The plagioclase solid solution series is best described as A) simple substitution of Mg+2 for Fe+2 B) coupled substitution of N a+1 for K+1 and Br—l for Cl-1. C) coupled substitution of Na+1 for Ca+2 and Si+4 for Al+3 D) simple substitution of Si+4 for Al+3 E) simple substitution of Na+1 for Cl—l 42) Lava flows are typically finer grained than intrusive igneous rocks. Why? A) Intrusive magma is cooler because it is well insulated by the surrounding rock. B) The extrusive magma cools quickly so the mineral grains do not have time to grow. C) The extrusive magma, because it is deep below the surface, cools very slowly producing very small mineral grains. D) Intrusive magma flows onto the Earth's surface and cools very slowly, allowing many small mineral grains to grow. 43) ‘Nhy would a plume of dry, solid silicate rock rising slowly from deep in the mantle begin melting ? A) Temperatures increase as pressure is lowered resulting in melting. B) The rock heats up and expands at lower pressures, causing it to liquefy. C) The lowered pressures cause rapid heat loss accompanied by melting. D) Temperatures decrease but remain high as lowared pressures decrease melting temperatures. 44) All silicate minerals contain which two elements? A) oxygen, carbon B) silicon, oxygen C) silicon, sodium D) iron, silicon 45) Which one of the following statements concerning mechanical weathering is not true? A) reduces grain sizes of rock particles 13) involves a major change in the mineral composition of the weathered material C) is important in the fermation of talus slopes D) allows for faster rates of chemical weathering 46) is a volcanic rock that is extremely vesicular and glassy. A) Tuff B) Pegmatite C) Pumice D) Obsidian 47) which one of the following best describes the dominant minerals in a gabbro? A) Ca-rich plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine B) Intermediate plagioclase (Na and Ca about equal), amphibole, and pyroxene C) Ca—rich plagioclase, pyroxene, and quartz D) Na-rich plagioclase, amphibole, and quartz E) Na—rich plagioclase, K—feldspar (orthoclase),'and quartz 40) 41) 43) 44) 45) 48) Which one of the following best describes the dominant minerals in a diorite? 48) A) Intermediate plagioclase (Na and Ca about equal), amphibole, and pyroxene B) Na-rich plagiocclase, amphibole, and quartz C) Ca—rich plagiocclase, pyroxene, and olivine D) Cd-uul ylasluuuaac, PleAT—‘LEC, auu LlLlaJLL E) Na—rich plagiocclase, K—feldspar (orthoclase), and quartz 49) Which one of the following best represents the relative mineral stability in the weathering 49) environment, most stable on the right, least stable on the left 1‘1) Flaw-mam, Liwlilb, FwtuwoiuAI-I. [elder-ax, ulu-u-lg B) ampnibole, pyroxene, olivine, Ca-rich plagioclase C) quartz potassium feldspar, biotite, pyroxene D) Na—plagioclase, pyroxene, olivine 50) How many of the following chemical formulas for minerals are correctly balanced (electrically 50) neutral)? 514 08 Mngi308 NaAleizOS CaAlSi303 A) 4 B) 2 C) 3 D) 1 E) 0 Answer Key Testname: GEOLIOITEST2F06 1)B 2)E 3)B 4)D ...
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