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CHEM 106 Review - CHEM 106 Review Nikki Schmid Hydrocarbons...

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CHEM 106 Review Nikki Schmid Hydrocarbons – from trees/organic compounds/gasoline, heats up earth, reduced by catalytic converters, burned in internal combustion engines CH4 – methane, mostly naturally produced, causes global warming, comes a lot from livestock Particulate Matter – reduced by electromagnetic scrubbers and electrostatic precipitation Aerosols – cause lung damage and absorb air pollution – reduced by electrostatic precipitation SO2 (primary) – London or industrial smog, coal burning, reddish brown smoke – reduced through molten sodium carbonate, 30% comes from volcanoes NO (primary) - 80% from humans, produces ozone when it reacts with sunlight, nitrogen fixation for plants, a precursor leading to the formation of SO2, also produced by lightning and forest fires and is a free radical, naturally destroys ozone NO2 (secondary when it comes from O3) – photochemical smog, car exhausts, reduced by catalytic converters, fractionation of air (which is cooling the air to separate ice and frozen CO2), harder to control than sulfur oxides, usually removed by rainout because it is so reactive with water vapor N2O – produced by stuff in soil, laughing gas (nitric oxide) OH – hydroxyl radicals, naturally destroy ozone O3 , ozone (secondary) – photo dissociation of No and NO2, irritating gas SO3 (primary & secondary) – pollutant form SO2 when it reacts with oxygen SO4 (secondary) – mixes with aerosols and causes acid rain, reactive with water vapor CO (primary) – very toxic gas from incomplete combustion – reduced by catalytic converters, has a triple bond CO2 (primary) – produced by cars and humans and removal of SO2 from atmosphere, heats up the earth CFCs – refrigerant (also in ACs) that destroys the ozone layer, causing global warming and skin cancer, added CFCs is like the bathtub analogy (adding another drain), totally man-made, more profitable to smuggle into the US than cocaine HFCs – way less threatening to ozone depletion but may make global warming generally worse because they are a greenhouse gas and absorb CO2 more efficiently, temporary solution to CFCs in Montreal Protocol Physical Properties : - density - melting temperature - electrical conductivity - color - boiling point - odor - solubility Chemical Properties : - decomposition into 2 different elements through heating - color change - presence of flames - production of solid from 2 liquids - production of energy (light/sound/heat) - reaction with sulfur - paper ignition temperature - For a chemical reaction to occur, atoms, molecules, or ions must collide, and these collisions must be sufficiently energetic, and they have to collide in the right spot Mixtures : - can be homogeneous or heterogeneous - gasoline (homogenous) - milk - homogenous if completely dissolved - lumber
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- iced tea - Steel (of iron and alloy) - ink (of dye and solvent) - ocean water - bronze - 18 carat gold - exhaled breath - butter - sterling silver Compounds : - pure water - iron sulfide - pure ice - organic if they contain C and H together Homogeneous Matter : - can be a pure substance (compounds/molecules or elements) -
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