PracticeExam4Geology2

PracticeExam4Geology2 - ,0, 75m» 5.2/07. Pa; Test 4...

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Unformatted text preview: ,0, 75m» 5.2/07. Pa; Test 4 Geology 101 Fall 2007 Instructor: Dr. Andrew Hajash Mark answers on test first, transfer answers to scantron after finishing test Name RETURN TEST and SCANTRON (with UIN) DO NOT put UIN on this test 1) Which one of the following waves would arrive last? 1) A) pkikp B) skjkp C) skikp D) pkjkp E) skjks 2) Which one of the following is true regarding tsunamis? 2) A) They travel as deep—water waves at speeds greater than surface seismic waves but slower than S waves. B) They occur in the open ocean, wavelengths are many miles or kilometers and wave heights are only a few feet. C) Their wave heights decrease and wavelengths increase as they move into shallower water. D) They are started by fault—induced, horizontal shifts in the sea floor that suddenly propel great masses of water in opposite directions. 3) Which one of the following is consistent with deformation by folding? 3) A) The crust is stretched and elongated. B) Horizontal distance is shortened perpendicular to fold axes. C) The crust is thinned. D) Horizontal distance perpendicular to fold axes is lengthened. 4) Which one of the following statements best describes the definition of the strike of a bed? 4) A) angle between a horizontal plane and the bed B) when a bed clips to the east, the strike is East—West C) bearing of a line formed by the intersection of the bed with a horizontal plane. D) angular deviation of the magnetic vector from the horizontal E) bearing of a line that is parallel to the clip of the bed 5) How is a large thrust fault (e.g., Lewis overthrust in Glacier National Park) usually recognized 5) in the field? A) a series of half—grabens with horsts in between. B) younger rocks overlying older rocks C) older rocks overlying younger rocks D) blueschist grade metamorphism is associated with these large faults 6) Which one of the following accurately lists low—velocity zones (zones having lower velocity 6) than materials immediatly above them) in the earth? A) mantle at the crust-mantle boundary B) lithosphere and mesosphere C) crust and inner core D) outer core and top of asthenosphere 7) Which of the following is NOT true ? 7) A) A pkp wave travels as a compressional wave throughout it's whole path B) A pkjkp travel through the inner core as a compressional wave C) When a P wave enters the outer core from the mantle, it slows down. D) The mesosphere is essentially the same composition as the asthenosphere E) An 5 wave travels faster than Love or Rayleigh waves 8) The largest lateral, ground displacement is produced by . 8) A) horizontally vibrating surface waves B) first P arrival reflecting from the inner-outer core boundary C) the 5 wave reflected from the core—mantle boundary D) vertically vibrating P waves refracted across the Moho 9) Which one of the following best describes the "problem" with low—angle thrust faults with 9) many kilometers of displacement? A) how is the thin upper plate moved such great distances Without much internal deformation? B) how did young rocks get thrust on top of much older rocks? C) how do low angle normal faults get transformed into low-angle reverse faults? D) why do thrust faults form mostly at divergent margins? E) how did a large graben get deeply eroded by glaciers? 10) The is a direct measure of the distance from a seismic receiving station to the focus 10) of a distant earthquake. A) time interval between the first P—wave and the last surface wave B) time elapsed between the first P—wave arrivals from the first and last aftershocks C) time interval between the first P and 5— wave arrivals D) magnitude of the ground acceleration of surface wave passing a receiving station 11) How many of the following strikes and dips for rock layers are impossible? 11) Measurements listered in the following order: Strike, dip, dip direction. N25W, 648W ; N4OE, 45NW; N55W, 155E; E—W, 305 A) 3 B) 4 C) 2 D) 0 E) 1 12) A p wave is travelling down through the lithosphere and hits the lithosphere/ asthenosphere 12) boundary with an incident angle of 45 degrees. Which one of the following best describes the refracted angle of the wave as it enters the top of the asthenosphere? A) 55 degrees B) 35 degrees C) 45 degrees 13) Normal and reverse faults are characterized mainly by . 13) A) horizontal slip B) basal slip C) dip slip D) strike slip 14) Which one of the following statements best describes elastic deformation? 14) A) always results in ductile flow of the material B) means that any deformation is totally recoverable when the stress is removed C) can only occur under hydrostatic conditions D) only occurs in liquids 15) An 5 wave is travelling down through the crust and hits the Moho with an incident angle of 60 15) degrees. Which one of the following best describes the refracted angle of the wave as it enters the top of the mantle? A) 65 degrees B) 55 degrees C) 60 degrees 16) On a plot of arrival time of seismic waves vs distance from the energy source or earthquake, which one of the following is true? A) velocity of layers are inversely related to the slopes of the lines B) velocity of layers are directly related (directly proportional) to the slopes of the lines C) velocity of layers are determined from the y—intercepts. D) thickness of layers are inversely related to the slopes of the lines 17) Which one of the following best describes the orientation of 01 for the Basin and Range Province in western U. S. and the East African Rift system? A) vertical B) 60 degrees from horizontal C) N—S and horizontal D) E—W andhorizontal E) 30 degrees from horizontal 18) A transform fault is . A) a strike-slip fault that forms the boundary between tectonic plates B) a dip—slip fault connecting an anticline with a syncline C) the rift bounding faults on a mid—ocean ridge D) a reverse fault that steepens into a thrust fault 19) In reverse faulting, . A) the crust is stretched and thinned B) the hanging wall block slips downward along the thrust fault C) grabens develop on the footwall block D) horizontal, tensional stresses drive the deformation E) the crust is shortened in the horzontal direction and thickened in the vertical direction 20) How are low—velocity zones or layers generally located by seismic methods? A) by the presence of shadow zones. B) by the difference in arrival times of p and s waves. C) by difference in arrival times of Love and Rayleigh waves. D) by waves that result from the catastrophic vaporization of convoluted fragiscarps. E) by the areas of mass wasting and thrust faulting. 21) Approximately how much more energy is released in a 9.0 Richter magnitude earthquake than in one with magnitude 5.0 ? A) 300 times more B) 3000 times more C) more than a million times more D) 10,000 times more E) 30000 times more 22) Which one of the following statements concerning foci and epicenters is correct? A) The fault first cracks at the epicenter and breaks through to the surface at the focus. B) The earthquake starts at the focus and the rupture extends down to the epicenter. C) The epicenter is at the surface directly above the focus where the earthquake initiates. D) The focus is the faulted point on the surface directly above the epicenter. 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) P waves . A) have higher amplitudes than do S waves B) produce the strongest ground shaking C) are faster than S waves and surface waves D) propagate only in solids 24) For a normal fault that strikes N—S and clips 60 degrees to the East, which one of the following best describes the state of stress at the time of faulting? A) 01 would have been vertical and 03 would have been oriented at N—S and horizontal at the time of faulting. B) 01 would have been vertical and 02 would have been oriented at N30E and horizontal at the time of faulting. C) 01 would have been horizontal and oriented at N30E at the time of faulting. D) 01 would have been vertical, 02 would have been oriented at N—S and horizontal, and 03 would have been oriented E—W and horizontal at the time of faulting. 25) Which of the following is NOT true ? A) Oceanic crust is essentially the same composition as the mantle B) When a F wave enters the outer core from the mantle, it slows down. C) The geomagnetic field is produced by fluid motions in the earth's outer core. D) When an elastic wave travels from a low velocity layer to a high velocity layer, the ray is refracted away from the perpendicular to the interface. E) The mesosphere is essentially the same composition as the asthenosphere 26) Which one of the following is true for anticlines but not for synclines? A) The deeper strata are buckled upward along the fold axis. B) After erosion, the younger strata are exposed along the axial region of the fold. C) Some may be asymmetric and some may have plunging axes. D) The limbs dip or are inclined towards the fold axis. will show the highest amplitudes. B) surface waves C) body waves 27) On a typical seismogram, A) P waves D) S waves 28) How was the Turnagain Heights area of Anchorage, Alaska, damaged during the 1964 earthquake? A) It burned in a fire set off by broken gas lines. B) It was hit by a large tsunami and then buried by a rock avalanche. C) Repeated onslaught of p, pp, ppp, s , ss, psp, pkp, and other body waves generated in the shadow zone D) It was burned by gases released during catastrophic destableization of gas hydrates just off the coast. E) A weak, subsurface, clay layer failed, resulting in numerous landslides. 29) The Earth's magnetic field A) results from self-induction of rising magmas in the asthenosphere B) is a permanent field due to magnetized, iron—rich, mineral grains in the oceanic lithosphere C) is a high temperature superconductor in the inner core D) is a self—generating and self—reversing dynamo in the outer core 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) A reverse fault is one in which . 30) A) one block has moved downward and the other moved horizontally along a vertical fault B) the hanging wall block has moved up relative to the footwall block along an inclined fault C) both blocks have moved horizontally in opposite directions along an inclined fault D) the block above the fault plane has moved backwards with respect to the other block 31) A fault plane strikes N45E and dips steeply to the NW. Visual evidence indicates that most of 31) the fault movement was vertical (dip-slip) and that Permian rocks occur northwest of the fault while Mississippian rocks lie to the southeast. The fault is most likely a A) left-lateral strike-slip fault B) right—lateral strike slip fault C) low—angle thrust fault D) reverse fault E) normal fault 32) Which one of the following best describes the velocity of seismic waves in the Earth? 32) A) Velocities generally increase with increasing depth because the rocks become more dense. B) Velocities generally decrease with increasing depth because the rocks become more dense. C) Velocities generally decrease with increasing depth the rocks get hotter. D) Velocities generally increase with increasing depth because the rocks get colder. E) Velocities generally increase with increasing depth because the rocks become more rigid. 33) Which one of the following would not be a characteristic of the San Andreas fault zone? 33) A) laterally offset stream channels B) steep, near vertical, dip—slip, fault scarps C) sag ponds D) deformed, broken, and pulverized bedrock 34) Energy is stored in rocks adjacent to the site of a future earthquake as . 34) A) thermal energy B) plastic flow energy C) elastic strain D) plastic strain 35) Which one of the following best characterizes parameters that one can determine from a plot of 35) arrival time of seismic wave vs distance from the energy source or earthquake? A) temperature of layers and heat flow data B) velocity of layers and thickness of layers C) the geothermal gradient in the earth D) the presssure and rigidity at the earthquake focus E) the density and rigidity at the earthquake epicenter 36) A deeply eroded, structural basin would exhibit . 36) A) strata oriented in roughly circular, outcrop patterns B) strata dipping outward away from the center of the basin C) older strata at the edges of a basin dip away from a central, horizontal, fold axis D) outcrops of the oldest strata in the center of the basin 37) A graben is characterized by A) a footwall block that has moved down between two reverse faults B) a hanging wall block that has moved up between two reverse faults C) a footwall block that has moved up between two normal faults D) a hanging wall block that has moved down between two normal faults 38) The solid inner core was discovered through modelling the arrival time of pkjkp and pkikp waves A) True B) False 39) Which one of the following statements is correct? A) P waves travel through solids; S waves do not. B) P and S waves travel through liquids, but S waves do not travel through solids. C) S waves travel through solids only, but P waves can travel through solids, liquids, and gases. D) P and S waves travel through liquids, but P waves do not travel through solids. 40) The Great Rift Valley of East Africa is characterized by A) mainly normal faulting as East Africa begins to fragment B) mainly transform faulting along zones connecting the rift with the Red Sea C) mainly thrust faulting as Africa collides with Arabia D) mainly anticlinal and synclinal folding as Africa collides with Madagascar 41) Which one of the following best describes the orientation of 01 for the San Andreas fault where it has a strike of N30 W? A) perpendicular to the strike of the fault. B) N—S, horizontal C) N30E, horizontal D) N30W, horizontal E) vertical 42) The is the point of origination for an earthquake. A) focus B) seismic centroid C) epizone D) fault point 43) The P—wave shadow zone is largely the result of A) refraction of P waves crossing the mantle—outer core boundary B) reflection of P waves at the boundary between the inner and outer cores C) reflection of P waves from the inner core—outer core boundary D) lower P—wave velocities in the mantle than in the crust 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) For a reverse fault that strikes N45E and dips 30 to the Northwest, which one of the following best describes the state of stress at the time of faulting? A) 01 would have been horizontal and oriented at N30E at the time of faulting. B) 03 would have been vertical, 62 would have been oriented at N45W and horizontal, and 01 would have been oriented N75E and horizontal at the time of faulting. C) 01 would have been vertical and 02 would have been oriented at N45E and horizontal at the time of faulting. D) 03 would have been vertical, 02 would have been oriented at N45E and horizontal, and 01 would have been oriented N45W and horizontal at the time of faulting. E) 03 would have been vertical, 02 would have been oriented at N45W and horizontal, and 01 would have been oriented N30E and horizontal at the time of faulting. 45) In the eastern part of a region I am mapping, the beds strike N—S and dip to the east, in the western part of the region, the same beds are exposed and strike N—S and dip to the west. The oldest rocks in area are exposed in a N—S trending area near the center of the mapping area. Which one of the following best describes the structure? A) a syncline. B) an overturned anticline. C) a basin elongated E—W. D) an anticline E) an overturned syncline 46) Which one of the following best describes the geologic applications of the "Beer Can Experiment?" A) strike—slip faults like the Great Glen fault of Scottland are usually associated with transform plate boundaries B) high pore—fluid pressures may from drinking too much beer or other water—based fluids C) normal faults have the axis of maximum compression vertical D) mountains must have been over 60,000 feet tall in order for thrust faults to form. E) high pore-fluid pressures may lower the shear stress needed to get large thrust sheets to move. 47) Dr. Hajash demonstrated in class that it is very easy to spin a hard-boiled egg on it's end but .very difficult (near impossible) to spin a raw egg on it's end. The point was to demonstrate A) that p waves were faster than s waves B) that his eggs were brown and he knows how to boil water. C) that he might be very helpful in the kitchen. D) that liquids cannot transmit a shear stress, thus 5 waves cannot travel through liquids E) that an increase in density causes seismic body waves to slow down 48) In the eastern part of a region I am mapping, the beds strike N-S and dip to the west. In the western part of the region, the same beds are exposed and strike N—S and dip to the east. The oldest rocks in area are exposed in a N—S trending area near the center of the mapping area. Which one of the following best describes the structure? A) a basin elongated E-W. B) an overturned anticline. C) a syncline. D) an overturned syncline E) an anticline 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) Which one of the following best describes an overturned fold? 49) A) A fold with both limbs tilted more than 90 degrees B) A fold with one limb tilted more than 90 degrees C) A fold that plunges more than 45 degrees D) A fold with one limb tilted more than 180 degrees 50) are thought to be similar in composition to Earth's mantle. 50) A) Cosmic gas clouds B) Stony meteorites C) Shooting stars D) Metallic meteorites Answer Key Testname: 101TEST4FALLO7 1) E 2) B 3) B 4) C 5) C 6) D 7) B 8) A 9) A 10) C 11) E 12) B 13) C 14) B 15) A 16) A 17) A 18) A 19) E 20) A 21) C 22) C 23) C 24) D 25) A 26) A 27) B 28) E 29) D 30) B 31) E 32) E 33) B 34) C 35) B 36) A 37) D 38) A 39) C 40) A 41) B 42) A 43) A 44) D 45) D 46) E 47) D 48) B 49) B 50) 3 ...
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PracticeExam4Geology2 - ,0, 75m» 5.2/07. Pa; Test 4...

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