Study guide 1 - Module 1 A History of psychology Empiricism the view that knowledge comes from experience via the senses and science flourishes

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Module 1 A. History of psychology Empiricism- the view that knowledge comes from experience via the senses and science flourishes through observation and experiment Structuralism- an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind Functionalism- a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish Psychology- the scientific study of behavior and mental process B. Contemporary psychology Nature vs. nurture The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors Natural selection- the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Module 2-3 A. Scientific Method: more detailed and precise according to hypothesis. Personal Approach: based on common sense and/or experience. It does not always work well. The problem with personal approach is that reality doesn’t always agree with what makes sense. Herring Illusion- things don’t seem what they are. Motion Binding - changing of perception. Theory- involves an attempt to understand, explain or predict what is observed Hypothesis- testable prediction B. Limits of intuition and common sense Hindsight bias- tend to believe after learning an outcome; “I knew it all along” phenomenon. Overconfidence- tend to think we know more than we do C. Scientific research strategies
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Case Studies- study one or more individuals in great depth in hope of revealing things true of a larger group to which individuals belong to. Survey- technique for asserting the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people Naturalist observations- observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation Correlation- scientific approach to determining the relationship between two things Module 4-7 A. Nervous System: Central vs. peripheral- Central nervous system is at the brain and spinal cord and the peripheral is the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body Somatic vs. autonomic- Somatic is the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles Sympathetic vs. parasympathetic- sympathetic is the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations Simple reflex- automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus such as the knee-jerk response B. The Brain: Brainstem- needed for survival; begins where the spinal cord swells, responsible for automatic survival functions, medulla is at base of the brainstem and controls heartbeat and breathing Thalamus Brain sensory switchboard, located at the top of brainstem
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Catone during the Spring '07 term at CSU Fullerton.

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Study guide 1 - Module 1 A History of psychology Empiricism the view that knowledge comes from experience via the senses and science flourishes

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