DYNAMICS.pdf - DYNAMICS Table of Contents u201cWhat is...

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1 DYNAMICS Table of Contents “What is motion”? ............................................................................................................................. 2 Parameters Describing Motion .......................................................................................................... 2 Velocity .............................................................................................................................................. 4 Instantaneous Velocity ....................................................................................................................... 5 Particle under constant velocity ........................................................................................................ 6 Particle under constant speed ............................................................................................................ 7 Acceleration ....................................................................................................................................... 8 Graphical Relationships Between x, v x , and a x ............................................................................... 10 Kinematic equations ........................................................................................................................ 13 Newton’s Law of Motion ............................................................................................................... 15 Newton’s Second law of motion ................................................................................................... 16 Gravitation Force and Weight ...................................................................................................... 17 Newton’s third Law of motion ..................................................................................................... 19 LINEAR MOMENTUM AND IMPULSE ..................................................................................... 25
2 Linear Motion with a Constant Acceleration a) Definition of Motion b) Parameters for describing motion: Position, Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration c) Motion in a Straight line We describe the motion of an object while ignoring the interactions with external agents that might be affecting or modifying that motion (This portion of classical mechanics is called kinematics ). We use what is called the particle model and describe the moving object as a particle regardless of its size. A single particle of the object represents the whole object. OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you will be able to; • Define in scientific terms what motion is. • Define the velocity and acceleration of a particle undergoing rectilinear motion. • Distinguish between average and instantaneous velocity of a particle undergoing rectilinear motion • State the laws of motion • solve problems concerning rectilinear motion of objects using the laws of motion “What is motion”? An object is said to be in motion if it changes its location at different times. This means that our study of motion will deal mainly with questions like where and when? Motion may be defined as a continuous change of position with time. One dimensional motion is also known as rectilinear motion. Motion of a particle in space is described by three dimensions Cartesian plane. Parameters Describing Motion A particle’s position , x is the location of the particle with respect to a chosen reference point that we can consider to be the origin of a coordinate system. The motion of a particle is completely known if the particle’s position in space is known at all times. Reference position, ± = 0 . Consider the table below of position of a car at a given time interval
Position t (s) x (cm) a 0 b 10 c 20 d 30 e 40 -37 f 50 -53 30 52 38 0 ³ .
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