THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Prof. Peter Ellison, office hours Tu 2-3 or by appt. AIDS patient in South Africa
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM AIDS patient in South Africa Outline: 1. Case study: Pneumocystis carinii 2. The stage and the players 3. Three types of defenses a. Innate (non-specific) b. Acquired (adaptive, specific) i. Cell-mediated ii. Humoral 4. Evolution is not (just) on our side
P. carinii is a common fungus
The lymphocytes of the patients would not proliferate in response to normal stimuli. Yet the antibody titers in their blood were normal.
THREE MAJOR SYSTEMS OF INTEGRATION NERVOUS SYSTEM Point-to-point, fast, sensory information, muscle control, cognition ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Broadcast, fixed source to dispersed targets, coordination of physiology, integration of physiology and behavior, regulation of gene expression IMMUNE SYSTEM Broadcast, mobile sources and targets, detection of “non-self” indicators, coordination of mobile defenses, “search and destroy”, rapid clonal expansion
PREDATION FROM WITHOUT PREDATION FROM WITHIN VIRUSES BACTERIA EUKARYOTES, FUNGI, ETC.
β - adrenergic receptor The “ sensory organs ” of single celled organisms provided the foundation for cellular integration in multicellular organisms.
In the nervous system, the signaling molecules are called neurotransmitters, in the endocrine system they are called hormones . In the immune system they are called cytokines.
Cells of the immune system also have specialized receptors for recognizing markers on the surface of foreign cells. These markers are called antigens . Antibodies are essentially free-floating receptors for foreign antigens produced by B cells. The binding sites of antibodies (tips of the “Y”) have a virtually unlimited variety but are the same for each antibody and each individual antibody producing cell.
Your own cells have specialized markers as well that tell the immune system that they are part of you.
- Fall '10
- cells, Cytotoxic Cells, Cytotoxic T cells