LS2_Lecture6_bonegrowth1 - Life Sciences 2 Musculoskeletal development growth and function Readings Saladin(Ch 16 Bone Tissue online reading Vander(very

LS2_Lecture6_bonegrowth1 - Life Sciences 2 Musculoskeletal...

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Life Sciences 2 Sept 16, 2013 Musculoskeletal development, growth and function Readings: Saladin (Ch 16 Bone Tissue – online reading) Vander (very little! Ch 11, Section F) Also see Netter & Skeleton Lab. Professor Andrew A. Biewener Office hours Wed 2-3 SciCenter 432, or MCZ-Agassiz Hall Rm1 by appt : [email protected] Lecture Outline: 1. Overview of Bone function 2. Bone structure 3. Other connective tissues 4. *Bone growth & adaptability 5. Osteoporosis
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Functional roles of the skeleton 2 Mechanical Functions: STIFFNESS & STRENGTH! STIFFNESS = resistance to deformation • Oppose gravity • Permit muscles to generate movement • Protect organs (e.g. brain, thorax) ouch! Force Deformation ( ! L) Area = energy absorption (‘toughness’: how hard to break? ) slope (F/L) = ‘stiffness’ Bone mechanics: what is stiffness vs strength? !"#$ &'()*&& +,- &'()*&& ./0*)#/$ 120*34")# 5,06*7 8-*349 8&/0,)#9
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99% of body’s calcium in bone Function #3: Mineral (Ca ++ ) homeostasis Functional roles of the skeleton Hematopoesis (in bone marrow) (skeleton also contains bone marrow stem cells) Function #4: make blood cells Functional roles of the skeleton
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Function #5: Permit movement at joints Functional roles of the skeleton Hinge joints: 1 Axis Rotation (elbow humero-ulnar) Ball & Socket joints: 3 Axes Rotation (shoulder, hip) These functions pose an interesting problem: How do you stay stiff, strong, permit movement, store calcium & make blood while changing in size and shape? Evolution’s answer: bone A stiff, strong, dynamic tissue that is modifiable for G R O W T H
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diaphysis 2. Bone Structure metaphysis epiphysis epiphysis metaphysis Human femur Human tibia (midshaft) To the naked eye (macrostructurally), there are two types of bone Compact (cortical) & Trabecular (‘spongy’ or ‘cancellous’) 2. Bone structure (Transition from trabecular to compact bone occurs at metaphysis) Trabecular bone forms meshwork of struts and plates
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All vertebrate bones are made of the same tissue
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