Notes on Drosophila - Basic Info 1 Fruit/vinegar fly 2 Easy...

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Basic Info: 1. Fruit/vinegar fly 2. Easy culture 3. Fast life cycle 4. 1933: Morgan, chromosomes are physical carriers of genetic info 5. 1995: Lewis, Volhard, Wieschaus, “the genetic control of early embryonic development” Homeotic Mutants Hemeotic mutants exhibit an abnormal body plan. Some segments acquire a different quality compared to normal animals. 1. Drosophila Ubx mutant, the third thoracic segment develops like the second thoracic segment 2. Drosophila Antp mutant, the antennal head segment develops walking appendages of a thoracic segment Differential gene expression divides the Drosophila embryo into segments 1. Segmentation genes partition the body plan into segmental units along the longitudinal body axis. Differential expression of homeotic genes determines the morphology of each segment Ex. Ubx and Antp The Drosophila Ubx and Antp genes encode homeodomain transcription factors
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All Drosophila homeotic genes encode homeodomain transcription factors.
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Unformatted text preview: • • Homeobox (Hox) genes function as selector genes of segmental identity 1. Specify body segments in flies and mice 2. Are conserved in all animal phyla • • Many animal body plan elements share ancient gene regulatory roots 1. Longitudinal body axis 2. Dorsoventral body axis 3. Head region 4. Eyes 5. Heart 6. Central nervous system 7. Appendages • • The Drosophila gene eyeless is essential for eye development • • Also the mouse Small eye (Sey) gene is essential for eye development • • The Drosophila eyeless gene and mouse small eye gene encode the highly conserved transcription factor Pax-6. • • The conservation of Pax6 gene function in mouse and Drosophila (and all animals so far tested) implies that animal eyes evolved from a single photosensitive precursor organ. • • Eye specification by Pax6 is a key trait of all bilaterian body plans • • Onychophora are related to arthropods...
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