Test 1 review - Chapter 1 Development change over the...

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Chapter 1 Development – change over the lifespan, not easily reversed, progressive o Continuity – smooth, gradual change Quantitative – added to the system (advanced) o Discontinuity – abrupt, jerky changes Qualitative – transformation Nature vs. Nurture o Nurture – environment, home life, family o Nature – Genes Reactive vs. Active o Reactive – for development to occur, needs to be prompted o Active - development occurs because it is the nature of the organism to do so Realist vs. Rationalist o Realist – reality exists, must incorporate that into life o Rationalist/Constructivist - Reality is only what you think it is Theory Continuous/Discont. One course or many? Nature vs. Nurture Factors of Development Psychoanalytic Discontinuous One Both Early experiences set course of later development Behaviorism/ Social Learning Continuous Many Nurture Conditioning and modeling Piaget Cognitive Discontinuous One Both Innate drive to discover reality in a stimulating environment Information Processing Continuous One Both Active, sense making beings who modify their thinking as brain grows and they confront new environmental demands Ethology and evolutionary developmental psychology Both One Both Evolution and heredity influence behavior and learning lends adaptiveness to it. Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory Both Many Both Heredity, brain growth and dialogue contribute to development Ecological systems theory Not Specified Many Both Characteristics and reactions of others affect each other bidirectionally Lifespan perspective Both Many Both Intricate blend of environmental and hereditary factors. Naturalistic observation o Researcher has minimal impact on flow of natural behavior o Allows events to unfold without disruption. o Challenges: Hard to have minimal impact Time issues Researcher’s bias o Benefits: See behaviors as they occur in the real world
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Gives direction Recognizes behavioral patterns Good entry point Case Study o In-depth examination of a single individual o Clinical setting o Collect as much info as possible about individual in order to understand the influences that affect the experiences of the person o Subjects usually distinctive in some way. o Benefits: Rich source of information o Challenges: Researcher bias Limited generalizability Experimental Design o Manipulation of independent variables Courses of some outcomes o Measurement of dependent variables Outcomes o Control groups o Randomization o Eliminates the other factors that may affect the outcome Making variables constant Random assignment o Challenges: Researcher bias Ethical standards Correlation does not imply causation Cannot be done for many reasons o NOT USED OFTEN IN DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Correlational Design o Examines relationships among variables with focus on prediction rather than causality
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Test 1 review - Chapter 1 Development change over the...

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