Webb Ch 3 - Shaub 1 Christie Shaub January 22, 2008 ED...

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Shaub 1 Christie Shaub January 22, 2008 ED 110.B Webb Chapter 3 1. What are the elements of a life philosophy? What is meant by: a. Metaphysics Metaphysics attempts to answer the question, what is the nature of reality? o It is concerned with the nature of the person or the self. o It addresses whether or not human nature is basically good, evil, spiritual, mental or physical. It can be divided into the areas of ontology and cosmology. o Ontology raises questions about what we mean by the nature of existence. o Cosmology raises questions about the origin and organization of the universe. b. Epistemology This branch of philosophy is concerned with investigating the nature of knowledge. Raises questions about limits, sources and validity of knowledge, the cognitive process and “how we know”. There are many ways of knowing including: scientific inquiry, intuition, experience, sensing, feeling, trial, error and logic. Logic is a key dimension in philosophy and is primarily concerned with making inferences, reasoning or arguing in a rational matter. o Deductive logic is reasoning from a general statement or principle to a specific point or example. o Inductive logic is reasoning from a specific fact or facts to generalization. c. Seeks to determine nature of values. What is of value?
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Shaub 2 To evaluate, to make a judgment, to value means applying a set of norms to human conduct or beauty. Divided into two spheres: o Ethics – concerned with study of human conduct, examines moral values including right, wrong, good or bad. o Aesthetics- concerned with values in beauty, nature and the “aesthetic experience”
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Shaub 3 2. What are the major schools of philosophical thought? a. What are the characteristics and implications for education of each school? Idealism- oldest philosophy of Western culture, dating back to ancient Greece and Plato. o The world of the mind, ideas and reason is primary. o Mind over matter – nothing exists or is real except for an idea in the mind of the person or in the mind of God, the Universal mind. o Reality is the mind and eternal ideas that represent perfect order. o Knowledge is a rational, orderly body of truth. o Values are absolute, eternal and universal; they are a reflection of the ideal o A learner is a mind, soul and spirit capable of emulating the absolute mind. o The purpose of schooling is to stress eternal ideas of the past and promote spiritual and intellectual development o School should focus on the liberal arts and Great books taught by lecture, discussion and Socratic dialogue. Realism- One of oldest philosophies of Western culture, dating back to ancient Greece, in
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Webb Ch 3 - Shaub 1 Christie Shaub January 22, 2008 ED...

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