Test 2 review - Infancy and Toddlerhood The First 2 Years...

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Infancy and Toddlerhood: The First 2 Years Chapter 4: Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood Infancy - birth to 18 months of age States of arousal : o Sleeping o Awake and alert o Awake and active o Drowsy o Crying o Sleeps 2/3 of a 24 hour cycle. Growth is very much associated with sleep; cell repair and tissue repair Physical activity – (3-5 months of age) o fingers in the mouth, feet in the mouth, kicking of legs, etc. Crying – most forceful forms of communication; informative; signals what the child needs. o Human babies come equipped with the ability to cry. o Non-pain cry and a pain cry Different cries for pain and non-pain reasons Premature babies and babies with neurological disorders have different cries than normal babies. Sleep o Morning nap and afternoon nap. o Need for sleep is decreasing but it is still substantial. o Older babies sleep for longer than younger babies o Sleep deprived children and also adults, etc people are very irritable. They become more defiant and then fall asleep once they’ve calmed down. Nutrition – breast vs. bottle feeding o Bottle feeding More prevalent in affluent homes more so than the workplace. There was this notion that breast-feeding was less sanitary and that one couldn’t sterilize the breast, but a bottle could be sterilized. Anyone can feed a baby from a bottle. It is easier to keep track of how much the baby is eating. Moms who have difficulty with breast feeding can rely on bottle feeding Problems producing milk Baby having troubles sucking on the breast Wet nurses sometimes used if moms could not breast feed o Downside of formula feeding Gaining excessive weight Difficult to digest Lead’s to digestive problems – cow’s milk Goat’s milk and soy milk are alternatives o Breast Milk Has immune components so breast milk is easier for babies to digest and move through the body. Breast Milk Banks – healthy women pump breast milk and it is sent to the breast milk bank, frozen and sent to women in the U.S. and overseas who can’t produce breast milk. o Transition to Normal Food Babies will live on formula and breast milk for a couple of months. Doctors say around 6 months, to start introducing rice-based cereal After cereal is introduced, you then start with fruits, vegetables and meats, etc. BABIES CANNOT DIGEST HONEY!
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Body Growth o One of the most obvious changes in infants’ appearance is their transform into round, plump babies by the middle of the first year. o Girls are slightly shorter and lighter than boys. o The best way to measure a child’s physical maturity is to use skeletal age, the measure of bone development. o
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Test 2 review - Infancy and Toddlerhood The First 2 Years...

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