handout3 - Philosophy 4 Introduction to Ethics Handout#3...

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1 Philosophy 4: Introduction to Ethics October 4, 2007 Handout #3 Prof. Aaron Zimmerman War, Terrorism and Torture II 1. Humanitarian War Recall the five conditions of Jus Ad Bellum . Condition 1 : Only a person or body with legitimate authority over the foreign policy of a nation, state, or people can rightfully put it into war against another. Condition 2: A nation must have a just cause or good reason for going to war to do so justly. Condition 3 : If it is to go to war justly, a nation must have already exhausted all reasonable non- violent options for achieving its just aims. Condition 4 : To be justified in going to war a nation must have a reasonable prospect of achieving its just aims by fighting the war. Condition 5 : To justly go to war the beneficial consequences achievable by fighting the war must outweigh (or be substantially greater than) whatever harm and damage it is reasonable to believe will occur during the war and result from it. We’ve been considering whether the United States government met conditions 3-5 when declaring war against Iraq. Saddam wasn’t planning to attack the United States. He had no real connections to al Qaeda (where almost everyone agrees that al Qaeda was the group that attacked the United States on 9/11). He had no weapons of mass destruction, and he was a long way from developing the kinds of weapons that could be used against the United States (e.g. nuclear weapons and the long-range missile systems necessary to get them over here). Nevertheless, Saddam was a brutal tyrant. Our best evidence suggests that (during the Iran/Iraq war and perhaps afterward) he gassed the Kurdish population of Iraq. He jailed and executed his political opponents, and he never allowed his citizens to hold free elections, establish a free press, and enjoy the kinds of religious and economic liberties we enjoy in the United States. Questions : Did that fact that Saddam was an evil dictator justify the US in invading Iraq? Are offensive wars justified when they are aimed at riding other nations from tyranny? Is a war fought to instill democracy always a just war? The preeminent just war theorist Michael Walzer says, “No.” Walzer’s primary claim is as follows: F oreign nations often do not have the moral right to invade a nation even when that nation’s government is illegitimate and the citizens of that state: (1) have the right to overthrow that government, and (2) do not have an obligation to fight on its behalf . Nevertheless, Walzer sets out several rules of disregard that explain when humanitarian reasons can provide just cause for war:
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2 1. “Struggles for secession or national liberation justify or may justify intervention because in such cases there is no fit at all between government and community, and the state cannot claim, once the rebellion has reached certain proportions, even a presumptive legitimacy.” 2. “When a single community is disrupted by civil war, and when one foreign power intervenes in
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handout3 - Philosophy 4 Introduction to Ethics Handout#3...

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