Principles of the Nervous System Midterm Review

Principles of the Nervous System Midterm Review -...

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Principles of the Nervous System Midterm Review Facts about the brain: - ~2-3% of body and consumes ~20% of O2 - ~100 billion neurons - Glia - supporting cells, maintain outside of cells to allow electrical impulse - Genes - ~50% expressed in brain Parts of the brain: - Cerebrum + diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus) = forebrain - pons + medulla + cerebellum = brainstem -Nerves: cranial, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal - white and gray matter: white matter communicates one place to another 1. Gray matter : a. Nuclei- groups of CNS cell bodies and neuropil b. Cortex- nerve cells in CNS c. Ganglia- groups of neuronal cell bodies in PNS d. Neuropil- where most synaptic connectivity exists; dendrites, axon terminals, and glia 2. White matter : a. Myelinated groups of axons b. Bundles- groups of axons that run in same direction c. Tracts- groups of axons that carry (sensory and motor?) information 3. Meninges a. Dura Mater - outer layer, tough and rigid b. Arachnoid - layer attached to dura, closer to brain (mid layer) c. Subarachnoid space - space between arachnoid (midlayer) and pia mater d. Pia mater - membrane attached to brain and spinal cord- soft and delicate 4. Cerebrospinal fluid- acts as cushion; fills subarachnoid space, ventricles, canals, and intracellular space Input dendrite soma axon axon terminal - Electrical gradient maintained via separation of charge (stored charge within axon) - chemical gradient maintained due to differing ion concentrations on inside and outside of cell -Passive properties of neurons: axial (internal) resistance, membrane resistance, and membrane capacitance (ability to store charge) - length constant: decrease in internal resistance: current flow easier and may go farther before decay to 1/e of max voltage (lambda larger)
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  • Spring '14
  • Stein
  • Long QT syndrome, K+ concentration gradient, K+ channel subunits, Delayed K+ channels

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