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Iraq 1946-1991 - Germany(1945-1979 four most significant...

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Germany (1945-1979): four most significant issues, dynamics, or developments in the history of the Cold War as found in Judge and Langdon 1946-1958 main domestic factions and issues Shah redistributed of wealth and allowed creation of licensed political parties National Democratic Party stood for political parties, anti-monopolies, equal distribution of wealth, and political freedom Political parties had little appeal to the working, poorer people Communist Party was the best organized, but wasn’t licensed, and it appealed to minorities and the educated people Most growth during the time happened in the infrastructure Too little was done to modernize agricultural practices and optimize land use Landowners controlled 70% of the land, so Shah’s land project was very small Small amount of industrial development, despite the large amount of people who were moving to the cities and therefore had no jobs Illiteracy was estimated at about 90% and most children weren’t in school Not enough projects generating better living conditions for people through health care, education, jobs, etc; money was spent on infrastructure, benefiting the rich Protests and demonstrations were immediately quelled by the police, leading to injuries and deaths and that eventually led to riots US was thought to be tied with Britain, therefore was an unwanted foreign power Nuri as-Said was the prime minister who controlled politics behind King Faisal II Communist and Ba’ath Party emerged as the leading opposition to Nuri 1946-1958 main international factions and issues Jockeying by imperial powers, US, and USSR for power in former colonies, who were gaining or seeking independence and self-determination World and regional players were seeking oil Iraqi government allowed Jews to leave the country for Israel and because of pan- Arabism, leaving a big gap in the economy because such a large amount left Baghdad Pact (1955) adopted by the UK, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Pakistan Iraq joined the Baghdad Pact in order to revise their relationship with the British Egypt thought the Baghdad Pact would realign the Arab world and it would join the pro-Western bloc, leading to a rift between countries following Egypt or Iraq Attack by the West and Israel after the nationalization of the Suez Canal also caused a large split of alliances in the Arab world Younger generation were greatly influenced by Nasser, who promoted pan- Arabism, anti-Western states, and self-determination 1958-1963 domestic Overthrow of the monarchy was thought to bring about change, but the country became a military dictatorship New regime didn’t have much cohesion, support, or structure No separation between executive and legislative power, no elections, no separation between government and army Split in the regime about whether they were to ally or not with Egypt Ba’ath and Arab Nationalist Parties came to power after the revolution
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